MKISOFS linux command manual

MKISOFS(8)                                                         MKISOFS(8)



NAME
       mkisofs - create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional
       Rock Ridge attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs  is  effectively  a  pre-mastering  program  to  generate   an
       ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

       mkisofs  is  capable  of  generating  the  System Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This
       is  used  to further describe the files in the iso9660 filesystem to a
       unix host, and provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If  Joliet  or  HFS hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs
       will create additional filesystem meta data for Joliet  or  HFS.   The
       file content in this case refers to the same data blocks on the media.
       It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless the  Joliet  or  HFS
       hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs  can  generate  a  true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The
       same files are seen as HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as
       ISO9660  files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hier-
       archical File System and is the native file system used  on  Macintosh
       computers.

       As  an  alternative,  mkisofs  can  generate  the  Apple Extensions to
       ISO9660 for each file. These extensions provide each  file  with  CRE-
       ATOR,  TYPE  and  certain Finder Flags when accessed from a Macintosh.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory tree,  and  generates  a
       binary  image  which  will  correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem
       when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the iso9660 filesystem must have  a  filename  in
       the  8.3  format (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case),
       even if Rock Ridge is in use.  This filename is used on  systems  that
       are  not  able  to  make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-
       DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different  from  the
       other  filenames  in  the  same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to
       form correct names by forcing the unix  filename  to  upper  case  and
       truncating  as  required,  but  often times this yields unsatisfactory
       results when there are cases where the truncated  names  are  not  all
       unique.  mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names
       that are otherwise the same are found the name with the lower priority
       is  renamed to have a 3 digit number as an extension (where the number
       is guaranteed to be unique).  An example of this would  be  the  files
       foo.bar  and  foo.bar.~1~  -  the file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as
       FOO000.BAR;1 and the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt to  recognise
       files  stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the
       data and resource forks as well as any  relevant  finder  information.
       See  the  HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about for-
       mats mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not  designed  to  communicate  with  the  writer
       directly.   Most writers have proprietary command sets which vary from
       one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool to  actu-
       ally burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest    version    of    cdrecord    is    available     from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also  you  should  know that most cd writers are very particular about
       timing.  Once you start to burn a disc, you cannot  let  their  buffer
       empty  before  you  are  done, or you will end up with a corrupt disc.
       Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninterrupted data
       stream  to the writer for the entire time that the disc is being writ-
       ten.

       pathspec is the path of the directory  tree  to  be  copied  into  the
       iso9660 filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge the files found in all of the specified path components to  form
       the cdrom image.

       If  the  option  -graft-points  has  been specified, it is possible to
       graft the paths at points other than the root  directory,  and  it  is
       possible to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names
       different than what they have in the source filesystem.  This is easi-
       est to illustrate with a couple of examples.   Let's start by assuming
       that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the
       cdrom image.


            foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will  include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

            foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The
       same  sort  of  syntax  can be used with directories as well.  mkisofs
       will create any directories required such that the graft points  exist
       on  the  cdrom image - the directories do not need to appear in one of
       the paths.  By default, any directories that are created  on  the  fly
       like  this  will  have  permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the
       person running mkisofs.  If you wish other permissions  or  owners  of
       the  intermediate  directories,  see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode
       and -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with Cygnus'
       cygwin  (available  from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). There-
       fore most references in this man page to Unix  can  be  replaced  with
       Win32.


OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
              Specifies  the  abstract file name.  There is space on the disc
              for 37 characters of information.  This parameter can  also  be
              set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written  into  the  volume
              header.   This  should describe the application that will be on
              the disc.  There is space on the disc  for  128  characters  of
              information.   This  parameter  can  also  be  set  in the file
              .mkisofsrc with APPI=id.  If specified in both places, the com-
              mand line version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO9660  filenames  to  begin with a period.  Usually, a
              leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain
              MS-DOS compatibility.
              This  violates  the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
              This options allows lower case characters to appear in  iso9660
              filenames.
              This  violates  the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
              This options allows more than one  dot  to  appear  in  iso9660
              filenames.   A  leading  dot is not affected by this option, it
              may be allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
              This  violates  the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
              Specifies the bibliographic file name.  There is space  on  the
              disc for 37 characters of information.  This parameter can also
              be set in the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.   If  speci-
              fied in both places, the command line version is used.

       -cache-inodes
              Cache inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
              mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with  multiple  names),  then
              the  file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save
              space on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is default  on  UNIX
              like operating systems.  Be careful when using this option on a
              filesystem without unique inode numbers as  it  may  result  in
              files containing the wrong content on CD.

       -no-cache-inodes
              Do  not  cache inode and device numbers.  This option is needed
              whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers. It is
              the  default on Cygwin.  As the Microsoft operating system that
              runs below Cygwin is not POSIX  compliant,  it  does  not  have
              unique inode numbers.  Cygwin creates fake inode numbers from a
              hash algorithm that is not  100%  correct.   If  mkisofs  would
              cache  inodes  on  Cygwin, it would believe that some files are
              identical although they are not. The result in  this  case  are
              files that contain the wrong content if a significant amount of
              different files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is  to  be
              archived.   This  does  not happen when the -no-cache-inodes is
              used, but  the  disadvantage  is  that  mkisofs  cannot  detect
              hardlinks anymore and the resulting CD image may be larger than
              expected.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot image  to  be  used
              when  making  an  "El Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.  This  option
              is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The boot image
              must be exactly the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a  2880  kB
              floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the output
              iso9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte  sec-
              tor  should be read from the boot image (it is essentially emu-
              lating a normal floppy drive).  This will work, for example, if
              the boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

              If  the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add
              one of the options: -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.   If  the
              system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

              If the -sort option has not been specified, the boot images are
              sorted with low priority (+2) to the beginning of  the  medium.
              If  you don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
              for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Start with a new set of  "El  Torito"  boot  parameters.   This
              allows to have more than one El Torito boot on a CD.  A maximum
              of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies a comma separated list of boot images that are needed
              to  make  a bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition 0 is used
              for the ISO-9660 image, the first image file is mapped to  par-
              tition  1.   There  may  be empty fields in the comma separated
              list.  The maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it  is
              impossible  to  specify  more  than  7  partition images.  This
              option is required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.
              If  the  -B or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the first
              sector of the resulting image will contain a  Sun  disk  label.
              This  disk  label  specifies  slice 0 for the iso9660 image and
              slice 1 ... slice 7 for the boot images that have  been  speci-
              fied  with this option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of
              the additional boot images must contain  a  primary  boot  that
              works  for the appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each
              of the images usually contains an ufs filesystem that  is  used
              primary kernel boot stage.

              The implemented boot method is the boot method found with SunOS
              4.x and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend on SunOS inter-
              nals  but  only  on  properties of the Open Boot prom. For this
              reason, it should be usable for any OS that boots off  a  sparc
              system.

              For more information also see the NOTES section below.

              If  the  special filename ...  is used, the actual and all fol-
              lowing boot partitions are mapped to the previous partition. If
              mkisofs is called with -G image -B ...  all boot partitions are
              mapped to the partition that contains  the  iso9660  filesystem
              image  and  the generic boot image that is located in the first
              16 sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
              used when making a generic bootable CD.  The generic_boot_image
              will be placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first  16
              sectors  are  the  sectors  that are located before the iso9660
              primary volume descriptor.  If this  option  is  used  together
              with  the  -sparc-boot  option, the Sun disk label will overlay
              the first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Specifies that the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El  Torito"
              bootable  CDs  is  a  hard disk image. The hard disk image must
              begin with a master boot record that contains a  single  parti-
              tion.

       -no-emul-boot
              Specifies  that  the  boot  image  used  to  create "El Torito"
              bootable CDs is a 'no emulation' image. The  system  will  load
              and execute this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
              Specifies  that  the created "El Torito" CD should be marked as
              not bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the
              image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies  the  load  segment address of the boot image for no-
              emulation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in
              no-emulation  mode.   The  default  is  to load the entire boot
              file.  Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a  multiple
              of 4.

       -boot-info-table
              Specifies  that  a 56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM
              layout will be patched in at offset 8 in  the  boot  file.   If
              this  option  is given, the boot file is modified in the source
              filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file cannot  be
              easily  regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section
              for a description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create a  CDextra
              or  the image of a second session or a higher level session for
              a multi session disk.  The option -C takes a pair of  two  num-
              bers  separated by a comma. The first number is the sector num-
              ber of the first sector in the last session of  the  disk  that
              should  be appended to.  The second number is the starting sec-
              tor number of the new session.  The expected  pair  of  numbers
              may  be  retrieved  by  calling cdrecord -msinfo ...  If the -C
              option is used in conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs  will
              create a filesystem image that is intended to be a continuation
              of the previous session.  If the -C option is used without  the
              -M  option,  mkisofs  will  create  a  filesystem image that is
              intended to be used for a second session on a CDextra. This  is
              a  multi  session CD that holds audio data in the first session
              and a ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to be  used
              when  making  an  "El Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.  This  option
              is  required to make a bootable CD.  This file will be inserted
              into the output tree and not created in the source  filesystem,
              so  be  sure  the  specified filename does not conflict with an
              existing file, as it will be  excluded.  Usually  a  name  like
              "boot.catalog" is chosen.

              If  the  -sort  option has not been specified, the boot catalog
              sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning of  the  medium.
              If  you don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
              for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
              Check all filenames imported from old  session  for  compliance
              with  actual  mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option
              is not present, only names with a length > 31  are  checked  as
              these files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
              Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with actual mkisofs
              iso9660 file naming rules.  This is a high level option that is
              a  combination  of  the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames
              For the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
              Specifies the Copyright file name.  There is space on the  disc
              for  37  characters of information.  This parameter can also be
              set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
              This  violates  the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation,  and  instead  just  pack
              them in the way we see them.
              If  ISO9660:1999  has  not  been  selected,  this  violates the
              ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.   Use
              with caution.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides  the  mode of directories used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -dvd-video
              Generate  DVD-Video  compliant UDF file system. This is done by
              sorting the order of the content of the appropriate  files  and
              by  adding  padding between the files if needed.  Note that the
              sorting only works if the  DVD-Video  filenames  include  upper
              case characters only.

       -f     Follow  symbolic  links  when  generating the filesystem.  When
              this option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using
              Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides the mode of regular files used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -gid gid
              Overrides  the  gid  read from the source files to the value of
              gid.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output
              more verbose but may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
              Allow to use graft points for  filenames.  If  this  option  is
              used,  all filenames are checked for graft points. The filename
              is divided at the first unescaped equal sign.  All  occurrences
              of  '\\'  and  '='  characters  must  be  escaped  with '\\' if
              -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide glob from being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock  Ridge  direc-
              tory.   glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match
              any part of the filename or path.  Multiple globs may  be  hid-
              den.   If  glob  matches a directory, then the contents of that
              directory will be hidden.  In order to match a directory  name,
              make  sure the pathname does not include a trailing '/' charac-
              ter.  All the hidden files will still be written to the  output
              CD  image  file.   Should be used with the -hide-joliet option.
              See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
              Add the hidden  (existence)  ISO9660  directory  attribute  for
              glob.   This  attribute  will prevent glob from being listed on
              DOS based systems if the /A flag is not used for  the  listing.
              glob  is  a  shell  wild-card-style pattern that must match any
              part of the filename or path.  In order to  match  a  directory
              name,  make  sure  the pathname does not include a trailing '/'
              character.  Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to get the  hidden  attribute
              as above.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide  glob  from being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
              shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any part  of  the
              filename  or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be hidden.  If glob
              matches a directory, then the contents of that  directory  will
              be  hidden.   In order to match a directory name, make sure the
              pathname does not include a trailing '/'  character.   All  the
              hidden files will still be written to the output CD image file.
              Should be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for  more
              details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
              Hide  the  TRANS.TBL  files  from the Joliet tree.  These files
              usually don't make sense in the Joliet World as they  list  the
              real name and the ISO9660 name which may both be different from
              the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in  the  Rock  Ridge
              tree.   It  seems  to  be  impossible  to  completely  hide the
              RR_MOVED directory from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option  only
              makes  the  visible  tree  better  to understand for people who
              don't know what this directory is for.  If you need to have  no
              RR_MOVED  directory  at all, you should use the -D option. Note
              that in case that the -D option has been specified, the result-
              ing filesystem is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be
              readable on MS-DOS.  See also NOTES section for  more  informa-
              tion on the RR_MOVED directory.

       -input-charset charset
              Input  charset  that  defines the characters used in local file
              names.  To get a list of  valid  charset  names,  call  mkisofs
              -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default
              as charset name. The default initial values are  cp437  on  DOS
              based  systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See CHARAC-
              TER SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
              Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in
              Rock Ridge file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHAR-
              ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are  1..3  and
              4.

              With  level  1, files may only consist of one section and file-
              names are restricted to 8.3 characters.

              With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

              With level 3, no restrictions  (other  than  ISO-9660:1988)  do
              apply.

              With all iso9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are restricted
              to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore (_). The max-
              imum filename length is restricted to 31 characters, the direc-
              tory nesting level is restricted to  8  and  the  maximum  path
              length is limited to 255 characters.

              Level  4  officially  does  not  exists  but mkisofs maps it to
              ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

              With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number
              and  file  structure version number set to 2 is emitted.  There
              may be more than 8 levels of directory  nesting,  there  is  no
              need  for  a file to contain a dot and the dot has no more spe-
              cial meaning, file names do not have version numbers, the maxi-
              mum  length  for files and directory is raised to 207.  If Rock
              Ridge is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length is  reduced  to
              197.

              When  creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced vol-
              ume descriptor which looks similar to a primary volume descrip-
              tor  but  is  slightly  different. Be careful not to use broken
              software to make ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a  second
              PVD  copy and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito
              VD.

       -J     Generate  Joliet  directory  records  in  addition  to  regular
              iso9660  file  names.   This is primarily useful when the discs
              are to be used  on  Windows-NT  or  Windows-95  machines.   The
              Joliet  filenames are specified in Unicode and each path compo-
              nent can be up to 64 Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet
              is  no  standard  - CD's that use only Joliet extensions but no
              standard Rock Ridge extensions may  usually  only  be  used  on
              Microsoft  Win32  systems. Furthermore, the fact that the file-
              names are limited to 64 characters and  the  fact  that  Joliet
              uses the UTF-16 coding for Unicode characters causes interoper-
              ability problems.

       -joliet-long
              Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This
              breaks the Joliet specification - but appears to work. Use with
              caution. The number 103 is derived from: the maximum  Directory
              Record Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record (33),
              minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information (14),  divided
              by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
              Same  as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHAR-
              ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660  file-
              name  will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
              even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up  to  31
              characters.   If you use this option, the disc may be difficult
              to use on a MS-DOS system, but this  comes  in  handy  on  some
              other systems (such as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use -allow-lead-
              ing-dots instead.  This option will get POSIX.1-2001  semantics
              with mkisofs-2.02.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect  all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages to
              log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
              Exclude glob from being written to  CDROM.   glob  is  a  shell
              wild-card-style  pattern  that  must match part of the filename
              (not the path as with option -x).  Technically glob is  matched
              against  the  d->d_name  part of the directory entry.  Multiple
              globs may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

              would exclude all files ending in ".o", called "core" or  "foo-
              bar"  to  be  copied to CDROM. Note that if you had a directory
              called "foobar" it too (and  of  course  all  its  descendants)
              would be excluded.

              NOTE:  The -m and -x option description should both be updated,
              they are wrong.  Both now work identical and use filename glob-
              bing.  A  file is excluded if either the last component matches
              or the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow 37 chars in iso9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N
              option as the extra name space is taken from the space reserved
              for ISO-9660 version numbers.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
              many  systems.  Although a conforming application needs to pro-
              vide a buffer space of at least 37  characters,  disks  created
              with  this  option  may  cause a buffer overflow in the reading
              operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
              or

       -M device
              or

       -dev device
              Specifies path to existing iso9660  image  to  be  merged.  The
              alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the same
              syntax as the  dev=  parameter  of  cdrecord.   The  output  of
              mkisofs  will  be a new session which should get written to the
              end of the image specified  in  -M.   Typically  this  requires
              multi-session  capability for the recorder and cdrom drive that
              you are attempting to write this image  to.   This  option  may
              only be used in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
              This  violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the
              version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Mode to use when creating new directories in the iso fs  image.
              The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
              Do  not  include  backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem.
              If the -no-bak option is  specified,  files  that  contain  the
              characters  '~'  or  '#'  or end in '.bak' will not be included
              (these are typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -force-rr
              Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition  for
              previous sessions.  This helps to show rotten iso9660 extension
              records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge attributes  from  previous  sessions.
              This  may help to avoid getting into trouble when mkisofs finds
              illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
              Don't split the SL components, but  begin  a  new  Continuation
              Area  (CE)  instead.  This  may waste some space, but the SunOS
              4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in  reading  split  SL  components
              (link_size  =  component_size  instead  of  link_size += compo-
              nent_size).

              Note that this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale  in
              1997.   It is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
              it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that did
              create  defective  CE signatures if a symlink contained '/../'.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
              Don't split the SL fields, but begin a  new  Continuation  Area
              (CE)  instead.  This  may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4
              and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading  split  SL
              fields (a '/' can be dropped).

              Note  that this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
              1997.  It is questionable whether it makes sense at all.   When
              it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that did
              create defective CE signatures if a symlink  contained  '/../'.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
              is  the  name of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image
              should be written.  This can be a disk file, a tape  drive,  or
              it  can  correspond  directly to the device name of the optical
              disc writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that  the
              output  can  also  be a block special device for a regular disk
              drive, in which case the disk  partition  can  be  mounted  and
              examined to ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  If the
              option -B is used, then there is a padding at the  end  of  the
              iso9660  partition  and before the beginning of the boot parti-
              tions.  The size of this padding is chosen to  make  the  first
              boot  partition  start on a sector number that is a multiple of
              16.

              The padding is needed as many operating  systems  (e.g.  Linux)
              implement  read  ahead bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs
              result in read errors on one or more files that are located  at
              the  end  of  a  track. They are usually present when the CD is
              written in Track at Once mode or when the disk  is  written  as
              mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

              To  avoid  problems  with  I/O  error  on  the last file on the
              filesystem, the -pad option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
              Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make  the
              the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A  file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
              to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This list  of  pathspecs
              are processed after any that appear on the command line. If the
              argument is -, then the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use   -publisher
              instead.   This  option  will  get  POSIX.1-2001 semantics with
              mkisofs-2.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written  into  the  volume
              header.   This  should  describe  the  publisher  of the CDROM,
              usually with a mailing address  and  phone  number.   There  is
              space  on  the  disc  for  128 characters of information.  This
              parameter can also be set in the file  .mkisofsrc  with  PUBL=.
              If  specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written  into  the  volume
              header.   This  should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usu-
              ally with a mailing address and phone number.  There  is  space
              on  the disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter
              can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.   If  speci-
              fied in both places, the command line version is used.

       -print-size
              Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
              (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for Disk  At  Once
              mode  and  with  some  CD-R  drives  when  piping directly into
              cdrecord.  In this case it is needed to know the  size  of  the
              filesystem  before  the actual CD-creation is done.  The option
              -print-size allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before the
              CD is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write this
              information (among other information) to stderr.  As this turns
              out  to be hard to parse, the number without any other informa-
              tion is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a sim-
              ple  shell  script,  redirect  stderr and catch the number from
              stdout.  This may be done with:

              cdblocks=' mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... '

              mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress output  will
              be provided.

       -R     Generate  SUSP  and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to
              further describe the files on the iso9660 filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership  and  modes  are
              set  to  more  useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero,
              because they are usually only useful on  the  author's  system,
              and  not  useful to the client.  All the file read bits are set
              true, so that files and directories are  globally  readable  on
              the  client.   If any execute bit is set for a file, set all of
              the execute bits, so that executables are  globally  executable
              on  the  client.  If any search bit is set for a directory, set
              all of the  search  bits,  so  that  directories  are  globally
              searchable  on the client.  All write bits are cleared, because
              the CD-Rom will be mounted read-only in any case.   If  any  of
              the  special  mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks
              are not useful on a read-only file system, and set-id bits  are
              not desirable for uid 0 or gid 0.  When used on Win32, the exe-
              cute bit is set on all files. This is a result of the  lack  of
              file permissions on Win32 and the Cygwin POSIX emulation layer.
              See also -uid -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
              The  option  -relaxed-filenames  allows  ISO9660  filenames  to
              include digits, upper case characters and all other 7 bit ASCII
              characters (resp. anything except lowercase characters).
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
              Moves  all files and directories into dir in the image. This is
              essentially the same as using -graft-points and adding  dir  in
              front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.

              dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with the
              same permissions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
              This option is necessary when writing a multisession image  and
              the  previous  (or  even  older) session was written with -root
              dir.  Using a directory name not found in the previous  session
              causes mkisofs to abort with an error.

              Without  this option, mkisofs would not be able to find unmodi-
              fied files and would be forced to write  their  data  into  the
              image once more.

              -root  and -old-root are meant to be used together to do incre-
              mental backups.  The initial session would  e.g.  use:  mkisofs
              -root  backup_1 dirs.  The next incremental backup with mkisofs
              -root backup_2 -old-root backup_1  dirs.   would  take  another
              snapshot  of  these  directories.  The  first snapshot would be
              found in backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but  only  modi-
              fied or new files need to be written into the second session.

              Without  these  options,  new files would be added and old ones
              would be preserved. But old ones would be  overwritten  if  the
              file  was  modified.  Recovering the files by copying the whole
              directory back from CD  would  also  restore  files  that  were
              deleted  intentionally.  Accessing  several older versions of a
              file requires support by the operating system to  choose  which
              sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort file
              Sort  file  locations  on the media. Sorting is controlled by a
              file that  contains  pairs  of  filenames  and  sorting  offset
              weighting.   If  the  weighting  is  higher,  the  file will be
              located closer to the beginning of the media, if the  weighting
              is  lower,  the  file  will be located closer to the end of the
              media. There must be only one space or tabs  character  between
              the  filename  and  the  weight and the weight must be the last
              characters on a line. The filename is taken to include all  the
              characters up to, but not including the last space or tab char-
              acter on a line. This is to allow for space  characters  to  be
              in, or at the end of a filename.  This option does not sort the
              order of the file names that appear in the  ISO9660  directory.
              It  sorts the order in which the file data is written to the CD
              image - which may be useful in order to optimize the data  lay-
              out on a CD. See README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
              Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is cre-
              ated with the -sparc-boot option.

       -split-output
              Split the output image into several files  of  approximately  1
              GB.  This helps to create DVD sized iso9660 images on operating
              systems without large file support.  Cdrecord will  concatenate
              more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To
              make -split-output work, the -o filename option must be  speci-
              fied.   The  resulting  outout  images  will  be  named:  file-
              name_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
              Select streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.
              This  allows  you  to  pipe  the output of the tar program into
              mkisofs and to create a iso9660 filesystem without the need  of
              an  intermediate  tar  archive  file.   If this option has been
              specified, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file with the
              name  STREAM.IMG.   The maximum size of the file (with padding)
              is 200 sectors less than the specified media size.  If  -no-pad
              has  been  specified, the file size is 50 sectors less than the
              specified media size.  If the file  is  smaller,  then  mkisofs
              will write padding. This may take a while.

              The  option  -stream-media-size creates simple iso9660 filesys-
              tems only and may  not  used  together  with  multi-session  or
              hybrid filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
              Specifies  a comma separated list of filesystem images that are
              needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO-9660 image  and  that
              partition  2 is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may not be
              used by external partition  data.   The  first  image  file  is
              mapped  to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in the comma
              separated list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2 must  be
              empty.   The  maximum  number  of  supported  partitions  is  8
              (although the Solaris x86 partition table could support  up  to
              16 partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than 6 par-
              tition images.  This option is required to make a  bootable  CD
              for Solaris x86 systems.

              If the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first sector
              of the resulting image will contain a PC  fdisk  label  with  a
              Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512 and
              spans the whole CD.  In addition, for  the  Solaris  type  0x82
              fdisk  partition,  there is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in
              the first sector of the CD.  This disk label specifies slice  0
              for  the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that is used
              to boot the PC and slice 1 for  the  iso9660  image.   Slice  2
              spans  the  whole  CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may be used for addi-
              tional filesystem images that have  been  specified  with  this
              option.

              A  Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
              uses the El-Torito  no-emulation  boot  mode  and  a  secondary
              generic  boot  that  is  in CD sectors 1..15.  For this reason,
              both -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must  be  speci-
              fied.

       -sunx86-label label
              Set  the  SVr4  disk label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
              created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies the system ID.  There is space on  the  disc  for  32
              characters  of  information.  This parameter can also be set in
              the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified in  both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which
              can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish
              the  correct  file names.  There is also information present in
              the file that indicates the major and minor numbers  for  block
              and  character  devices,  and  each symlink has the name of the
              link file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
              Alternative translation table file name  (see  above).  Implies
              the  -T  option.  If you are creating a multi-session image you
              must use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet  SVD.  The  default
              level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include  UDF  support  in  the generated filesystem image.  UDF
              support is currently in alpha status and for this reason, it is
              not  possible  to  create UDF only images.  UDF data structures
              are currently coupled to the Joliet structures,  so  there  are
              many  pitfalls  with  the  current  implementation. There is no
              UID/GID support, there is no POSIX permission support, there is
              no  support  for symlinks.  Note that UDF wastes the space from
              sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disk in  addi-
              tion to the spcae needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
              Overrides  the  uid  read from the source files to the value of
              uid.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -use-fileversion
              The  option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use file version
              numbers from the filesystem.  If the option is  not  specified,
              mkisofs creates a version number of 1 for all files.  File ver-
              sions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is  the
              default on VMS.

       -U     Allows   "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely  violating  the
              iso9660 standards described above. Forces on the  -d,  -l,  -N,
              -allow-leading-dots,    -relaxed-filenames,   -allow-lowercase,
              -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate  flags.  It  allows  more
              than  one  '.' character in the filename, as well as mixed case
              filenames.  This is useful on HP-UX system, where the  built-in
              CDFS  filesystem  does  not  recognize ANY extensions. Use with
              extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
              Do not translate the characters '#' and '~' which  are  invalid
              for  iso9660  filenames.   These  characters are though invalid
              often used by Microsoft systems.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies  the  volume  ID (volume name or label) to be written
              into the master block.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters  of  information.  This parameter can also be set in the
              file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both places, the
              command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a volume
              ID, this is the name that will be used as the mount point  used
              by  the  Solaris  volume management system and the name that is
              assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or  Apple  Mac  plat-
              form.

       -volset ID
              Specifies  the  volset  ID.  There is space on the disc for 128
              characters of information.  This parameter can also be  set  in
              the  file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
              Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the num-
              ber  of  CD's  that  are in a CD volume set.  A volume set is a
              collection of one or more volumes, on which a set of  files  is
              recorded.

              Volume  Sets  are  not intended to be used to create a set num-
              bered CD's that are part of e.g. a Operation  System  installa-
              tion  set of CD's.  Volume Sets are rather used to record a big
              directory tree that would not fit on  a  single  volume.   Each
              volume of a Volume Set contains a description of all the direc-
              tories and files that are recorded on  the  volumes  where  the
              sequence  numbers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Vol-
              ume Set Size of the current volume.

              Mkisofs currently does  not  support  a  -volset-size  that  is
              larger than 1.

              The  option -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno
              on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets the volume set sequence  number  to  #.   The  volume  set
              sequence  number  is the index number of the current CD in a CD
              set.   The  option  -volset-size  must  be   specified   before
              -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose  execution.  If  given twice on the command line, extra
              debug information will be printed.

       -x path
              Exclude path from being written to CDROM.   path  must  be  the
              complete  pathname that results from concatenating the pathname
              given as command line argument and the path  relative  to  this
              directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

              NOTE:  The -m and -x option description should both be updated,
              they are wrong.  Both now work identical and use filename glob-
              bing.  A  file is excluded if either the last component matches
              or the whole path matches.

       -z     Generate special  RRIP  records  for  transparently  compressed
              files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that support
              transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or later.   You
              must specify the -R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and gen-
              erate compressed files using the mkzftree utility  before  run-
              ning  mkisofs.  Note that transparent compression is a nonstan-
              dard Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks are only trans-
              parently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems
              you will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.


HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create  an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
              conjunction with the -map, -magic  and/or  the  various  double
              dash options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD with Apple's extensions. Similar to the
              -hfs option, except that the Apple Extensions  to  ISO9660  are
              added instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.  Former mkisofs
              versions did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if -apple
              was  specified.  This versions of mkisofs does not do this any-
              more. If you like to have Rock Ridge attributes,  you  need  to
              specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use  the  mapping_file  to set the CREATOR and TYPE information
              for a file based on the filename's  extension.  A  filename  is
              mapped  only  if it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file for-
              mats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic
              number  (usually the first few bytes of a file). The magic_file
              is only used if a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix  file
              formats,  or  the  filename extension has not been mapped using
              the -map option. See the HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for
              more details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
              Set  the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 char-
              acters.  See  the  HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
              details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
              Set  the  default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
              ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more  details.

       -probe Search  the contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
              formats.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below  for
              more  about  these formats.  However, the only way to check for
              MacBinary and AppleSingle files  is  to  open  and  read  them.
              Therefore  this option may increase processing time. It is bet-
              ter to use one or more double dash options given below  if  the
              Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
              Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will
              be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh  (and  stored  in
              the  System Folder).  By default, empty Desktop files are added
              to the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
              Use the HFS filename as the starting  point  for  the  ISO9660,
              Joliet  and  Rock  Ridge file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
              NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
              Installs the driver_file that may make the  CD  bootable  on  a
              Macintosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table
              is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM  drivers  need  an
              HFS  partition  table  on  the  CDROM to be able to recognize a
              hybrid CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make the HFS CD use the  QuickTime  2.0  Autostart  feature  to
              launch  an  application or document. The given filename must be
              the name of a document or application located at the top  level
              of  the  CD.  The  filename  must  be  less than 12 characters.
              (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units of  PC
              Exchange files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MAC-
              INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will still
              exist  in the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
              wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of  the  file-
              name Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

              would  exclude all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
              the HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory  called  "foo-
              bar"  it  too  (and  of  course  all  its descendants) would be
              excluded.  The glob can also be a path  name  relative  to  the
              source directories given on the command line. Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would exclude just the file or directory called "html" from the
              "src" directory. Any other file or directory called  "html"  in
              the  tree  will not be excluded.  Should be used with the -hide
              and/or -hide-joliet options.  In order  to  match  a  directory
              name,  make  sure  the pathname does not include a trailing '/'
              character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
              Volume name for the HFS partition. This is  the  name  that  is
              assigned to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid used
              with the -V option

       -icon-position
              Use the icon position  information,  if  it  exists,  from  the
              Apple/Unix file.  The icons will appear in the same position as
              they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size  on
              screen, its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
              Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  This option may become set by
              default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
              Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View
              etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume. See  README.rootinfo
              for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
              PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
              (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the  characters  used  in  HFS  file
              names when used with the -mac-name option.  The default charset
              is cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See  CHARACTER  SETS
              and HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in
              the HFS file names. Defaults to the input charset. See  CHARAC-
              TER SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
              By  default,  mkisofs will create an HFS volume that is locked.
              This option leaves the volume unlocked so that  other  applica-
              tions (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROB-
              LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings  about  using  this
              option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless"  the given directory (folder). This is usually the Sys-
              tem Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs.  The  name
              of  the  directory  must be the whole path name as mkisofs sees
              it. e.g. if the given pathspec is  ./cddata  and  the  required
              folder  is  called  System  Folder, then the whole path name is
              "./cddata/System Folder" (remember to use quotes  if  the  name
              contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
              Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file system.
              Unlikely to be used  in  normal  circumstances.  See  the  lib-
              hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS  CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix
              file formats only. Searching for the other possible  Apple/Unix
              file  formats is disabled, unless other double dash options are
              given.

       --netatalk
              Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
              Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
              Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
              Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
              Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
              Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for  Macintosh  files  (NT  only)
              (Alpha)

       --osx-double
              Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
              Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files


CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs  processes  file  names in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for all  languages,  8-bit
       characters  are  not sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent all  known  languages.
       They  may  be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16  is  used
       by  Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that it only supports a
       subset of all codes and that 16-bit characters are not compliant  with
       the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit char-
       acter  is represented by one or more 8-bit characters.  If a character
       is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North  America)  is
       maps  1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If a charac-
       ter is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in  USA  and  other  countries  with
       limted  character  set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded
       Unicode character.  Character codes that cannot be  represented  as  a
       single  byte  in  UTF-8  (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape
       sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8  coding,  mkisofs  would  not
       need  to  recode  characters in file names.  Unfortunately, Apple uses
       completely nonstandard codings and Microsoft  uses  a  Unicode  coding
       that is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all  non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or  codepage  (which
       is  the  name used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system in
       use - the characters in a character set will  reflect  the  region  or
       natural language used by the user.

       Usually  character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,  codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit ASCII  characters  and  (on  PC's  and  Mac's)
       0x80-0xff are used for other characters.  Unfortunately even this does
       not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As  there  is  a  lot  more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a
       small subset are represented in a character set.  Therefore  the  same
       character  code may represent a different character in different char-
       acter sets. So a file name generated, say in central Europe,  may  not
       display  the  same  character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern
       Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use dif-
       ferent  character  sets  for  the  region or language. For example the
       character code for "small e with acute accent" may be  character  code
       0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.
       Note while the codings used on a PC or Mac  are  nonstandard,  Unicode
       codes this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value
       as the value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and  applications  will  use  the
       Unicode  character set as the basis for file names in a unique way, it
       may be necessary to specify which character set your file names use in
       and which character set the file names should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
              Defines  the  local  character  set  you are using on your host
              machine.  Any character set conversions that  take  place  will
              use  this character set as the staring point. The default input
              character sets are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1  on
              all other systems.

              If  the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents of the
              input character set will be used in the Joliet directory. Using
              the  -jcharset  option  is the same as using the -input-charset
              and -J options.

       -output-charset
              Defines the character set that will be used with for  the  Rock
              Ridge  names  on  the  CD. Defaults to the input character set.
              Only likely to be useful if used on a non-Unix  platform.  e.g.
              using mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock Ridge
              CDs. If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it  is  likely
              that  the  output  character  set will be the same as the input
              character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
              Defines the HFS character set used for HFS file  names  decoded
              from  any  of  the various Apple/Unix file formats. Only useful
              when used with -mac-name option. See  the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
              NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
              Defines  the  HFS  character  set used to create HFS file names
              from the input character set in use. In most cases this will be
              from  the  character  set given with the -input-charset option.
              Defaults to the input HFS character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to mkisofs.   To  get  a
       listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the charac-
       ter set options by giving a filename as the argument to  the  options.
       The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of the
       built in character sets.

       The format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
       available  from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The format of
       these files is:

            Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
            Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
            Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format
       or  comments lines (starting with the # character) are ignored without
       any warnings. Any missing input code is mapped  to  Unicode  character
       0x0000.

       Note  that  there  is no support for 16 bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or 32 bit
       UNICODE (UTF-32) coding because this coding is  not  POSIX  compliant.
       There  should  be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding which is compatible
       to POSIX filenames and supported by moder UNIX implementations such as
       Solaris.

       A  1:1  character  set  mapping  can  be  defined by using the keyword
       default as the argument to any of the character set options.  This  is
       the behaviour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not con-
       verted from the input character set. The ISO9660 character  set  is  a
       very  limited  subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would
       be pointless.

       Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a '_'
       character.


HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A  Macintosh  file  has two properties associated with it which define
       which application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this
       allows a Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the  cor-
       rect application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be
       found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The CREATOR  and  TYPE  information  is  stored  in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix  encoded files.  For other files it is possible to base the
       CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in the
       first few bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these  options
       are  given,  then their order on the command line is important. If the
       -map option is  given  first,  then  a  filename  extension  match  is
       attempted  before  a magic number match. However, if the -magic option
       is given first, then a magic number match is attempted before a  file-
       name extension match.

       If  a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found then the
       default CREATOR and TYPE for all regular files can  be  set  by  using
       entries  in  the  .mkisofsrc  file  or  using  the -hfs-creator and/or
       -hfs-type options, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE  are  'unix'
       and 'TEXT'.

       The  format  of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by
       aufs.  This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR,  TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#' character are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     '8BIM'    'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   'BnHq'    'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     'MSWD'    'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     'TVOD'    'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   'ttxt'    'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

              The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
              mapped.  The  default  mapping  for any filename extension that
              doesn't match is defined with the "*" character.

              The Xlate column defines the type of text  translation  between
              the  Unix  and  Macintosh file it is ignored by mkisofs, but is
              kept to be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does  not
              alter  the  contents  of a file, if a binary file has it's TYPE
              set as 'TEXT', it may  be  read  incorrectly  on  a  Macintosh.
              Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

              The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  keywords must be 4 characters long and
              enclosed in single quotes.

              The comment field is enclosed in double quotes - it is  ignored
              by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(4) file
       used by the Linux file(1) command  -  the  routines  for  reading  and
       decoding the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This  file  has  four tab separated columns for the byte offset, type,
       test and message.  Lines starting with the '#' character  are  comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type      test       message
       0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The only
       difference here is that for each entry in the magic file, the  message
       for  the  initial offset must be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed
       by 4 characters for the TYPE - white space is optional  between  them.
       Any  other  characters  on  this line are ignored.  Continuation lines
       (starting with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only  the  initial  offset
       lines are used.

       Using  the -magic option may significantly increase processing time as
       each file has to opened and read to find it's magic number.

       In summary, for all files, the  default  CREATOR  is  'unix'  and  the
       default  TYPE is 'TEXT'.  These can be changed by using entries in the
       .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If  the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the for-
       mat has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken  from  the
       values stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other  files  can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their file name
       extension (the  -map  option),  or  their  magic  number  (the  -magic
       option).  If the default match is used in the mapping file, then these
       values override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A    full    CREATOR/TYPE     database     can     be     found     at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html


HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh  files  have  two  parts  called the Data and Resource fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other  OSs)  can  only  cope  with
       files  having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have
       a number of attributes associated with them - probably the most impor-
       tant  are  the  TYPE  and  CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of these
       types of attributes.

       e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in
       the  Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It
       is usually the information in the data  fork  that  is  useful  across
       platforms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to
       be found to cope with the two forks and the  extra  attributes  (which
       are  referred  to  as  the finder info).  Unfortunately, it seems that
       every software package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has  chosen
       a completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource fork in subdirectory
              .resource with same filename  as  data  fork.  Finder  info  in
              .finderinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with
              same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also  stored  in  same
              "%"  file.  Netatalk  uses  the  same  format, but the resource
              fork/finderinfo stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble  with  same
              name as data fork.

       AppleSingle
              Data  structures similar to above, except both forks and finder
              info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data fork stored in a  file.  Resource  fork  and  finder  info
              together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
              Very similar to the EtherShare format, but the finder  info  is
              stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
              Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used  by  Macintoshes  to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.
              Data fork stored in  a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory
              resource.frk  (or  RESOURCE.FRK).  Finder info as one record in
              file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat  for  each
              data fork directory.

              Note:  mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size of the
              disk that the PC Exchange files are on  (or  have  been  copied
              from).  This  size  is  given by the -cluster-size option.  The
              cluster or allocation size can be found by using the DOS  util-
              ity CHKDSK.

              May  not  work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available
              with MacOS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
              be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
              Used  by  SGI  machines  when  they  mount HFS disks. Data fork
              stored in a file. Resource  fork  in  subdirectory  .HSResource
              with same name. Finder info as one record in file .HSancillary.
              Separate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              Allows Macintoshes to store Apple files on SMB  servers.   Data
              fork   stored   in   a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory
              resource.frk. Uses the AppleDouble  format  to  store  resource
              fork.

       Services for Macintosh
              Format  of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data
              fork is stored as "filename". Resource fork stored  as  a  NTFS
              stream  called  "filename:AFP_Resource".  The  finder  info  is
              stored as a NTFS stream  called  "filename:Afp_AfpInfo".  These
              streams are normally invisible to the user.

              Warning:  mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format. If an
              HFS file or folder stored on the NT server contains an  illegal
              NT  character in its name, then NT converts these characters to
              Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
               |  also  a  space or period if it is the last character of the
              file name, character codes 0x01 to  0x1f  (control  characters)
              and Apple' apple logo.

              Unfortunately,  these  private Unicode characters are not read-
              able by the mkisofs NT executable. Therefore any file or direc-
              tory name containing these characters will be ignored - includ-
              ing the contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
              When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on to a non-
              HFS  file  system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in
              AppleDouble format.  Data fork stored in a file. Resource  fork
              stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder info
              also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
              a  MacOS  X  system.  Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
              stored in a pseudo file with the  same  name  with  the  suffix
              '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X library
              call.

              Notes: (also see README.macosx)

              Only works when used on MacOS X.

              If a file is found with a zero length resource fork  and  empty
              finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding -
              therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other
       flags  from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the Macintosh
       filename is set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name  is
       based  on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section
       below.

       When using the -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored  in  the
       optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record - in
       much the same way as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In  fact  to  make
       life  easy,  the  Apple  extensions  are added at the beginning of the
       existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple  extensions  you
       get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

       The  Apple  extensions  require  the  resource fork to be stored as an
       ISO9660 associated file. This is just like any normal file  stored  in
       the  ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is set in
       the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the  data
       fork  (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files are nor-
       mally ignored by other OSs

       When using the -hfs option, the TYPE and  CREATOR  plus  other  finder
       info,  are  stored  in  a  separate  HFS directory, not visible on the
       ISO9660 volume.  The  HFS  directory  references  the  same  data  and
       resource fork files described above.

       In  most  cases,  it  is  better to use the -hfs option instead of the
       -apple option, as the latter imposes the  limited  ISO9660  characters
       allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the advan-
       tage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may
       be  possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the total size
       of the source files is approaching 650MB.


HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename that is  stored  with  an  Apple/Unix
       file  is  used  for  the  HFS  part  of  the  CD. However, not all the
       Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with  the  finderinfo.  In
       these  cases, the Unix filename is used - with escaped special charac-
       ters. Special characters include '/' and characters  with  codes  over
       127.

       Aufs  escapes  these characters by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme,
       but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If  mkisofs  can't  find  an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name,
       with any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted  to  a
       single  character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then
       they are left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted  to  "%"
       as  colon  is  the  HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an
       ordinary Unix file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.


       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a  directory  with  the  same  HFS
       name, then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make a unique name
       by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use  this  name
       as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
       using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an HFS name will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix filesystem, but contains a  HFS  file  called  someimage.gif,
       then  this  is  the  name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD.
       However, as mkisofs uses the Unix name as the starting point  for  the
       other  names,  then  the  ISO9660  name  generated  will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.BIN and the Joliet/Rock  Ridge  would  be  someimage.gif.bin.
       Although  the  actual  data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option
       will use the HFS filename as the starting point and the  ISO9660  name
       will  probably  be  SOMEIMAG.GIF  and  the  Joliet/Rock Ridge would be
       someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T  option
       -  the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS file name to  a  Joliet/Rock
       Ridge  file  name  defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).  The character set
       used can be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in  HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek), cp10007 (MacCyrillic),
       cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and  cp10081  (MacTurk-
       ish).

       Note:  the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the vari-
       ous Apple/Unix formats will not be converted as they are assumed to be
       in  the  correct Apple character set. Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge names
       derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The existing mkisofs code will filter out any illegal  characters  for
       the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing
       directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as  is.   But
       as  '/'  is  a legal HFS filename character, the -mac-name option con-
       verts '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can
       use Level 2 filenames, then you can use options  like  -allow-multidot
       without  problems on a Macintosh - still take care over the names, for
       example this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e.  only  have
       one '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi
       will be seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a '.' at the end - don't know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All filenames
       will be  in  upper  case  when  viewed  on  a  Macintosh.  Of  course,
       DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...


HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To  give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder
       includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To  give  a  volume  a
       custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be pasted over the volume's
       icon in the "Get Info" box of the volume. This  creates  an  invisible
       file  called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character) in the
       root folder.

       A custom folder icon is  very  similar  -  an  invisible  file  called
       'Icon\r' exits in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can use,
       is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste an  icon  to  its
       "Get  Info"  box.  If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount
       the floppy using something like:

                  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The floppy will be mounted as a CAP file system by default.  Then  run
       mkisofs using something like:

                  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If  you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to copy the
       icon file from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the  icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

                  hmount /dev/fd0
                  hdir -a
                  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where  '^V^M'  is control-V followed by control-M. Then run mkisofs by
       using something like:

                  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar -
       paste  an  icon  to folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting
       'Icon\r' file to the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To  give  a  custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found
       at: http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]


HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible)  driver,  a
       bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A  driver  can  be  obtained  from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM
       using the apple_driver utility. This file can then be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The  HFS  partition  (i.e. the hybrid disk in our case) must contain a
       suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have it's boot block set.  The
       boot  block  is  in  the  first  two blocks of a partition. For a non-
       bootable partition the boot block is full of zeros. Normally,  when  a
       System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot block
       is filled with a number of required settings - unfortunately  I  don't
       know  the  full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the fol-
       lowing will work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block  from
       the  first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
       for the HFS partition created by mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
              By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying  Apple  software
              to  your  CD,  you  become  liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc.
              Software License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the -boot-info-table option is given,  mkisofs  will  modify  the
       boot  file  specified  by  the  -b option by inserting a 56-byte "boot
       information table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done
       in  the source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is
       not easily recreated!  This file contains pointers which  may  not  be
       easily or reliably obtained at boot time.

       The  format  of  this table is as follows; all integers are in section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit  words  in  the  boot
       file  starting  at  byte offset 64.  All linear block addresses (LBAs)
       are given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc file, first in  the  current  working
       directory,  then  in the user's home directory, and then in the direc-
       tory in which the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is  assumed  to
       contain  a series of lines of the form TAG=value , and in this way you
       can specify certain options.  The case of the tag is not  significant.
       Some fields in the volume header are not settable on the command line,
       but can be altered through this facility.  Comments may be  placed  in
       this file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The application identifier should describe the application that
              will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128  char-
              acters  of information.  May be overridden using the -A command
              line option.

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name of a file on the disc
              containing  the  copyright  notice.  There is space in the disc
              for 37 characters of information.  May be overridden using  the
              -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The  abstract information, often the name of a file on the disc
              containing an abstract.  There is space  in  the  disc  for  37
              characters   of  information.   May  be  overridden  using  the
              -abstract command line option.

       BIBL   The bibliographic information, often the name of a file on  the
              disc containing a bibliography.  There is space in the disc for
              37 characters of information.   May  be  overridden  using  the
              -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This  should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually with a
              mailing address and phone number.  There is space on  the  disc
              for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
              -p command line option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a
              mailing  address  and phone number.  There is space on the disc
              for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
              -publisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters of information.  May be overridden using the -sysid com-
              mand line option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters of information.  May be overridden using the -V  command
              line option.

       VOLS   The  Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 char-
              acters of information.  May be  overridden  using  the  -volset
              command line option.

       HFS_TYPE
              The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
              ters.  May be  overridden  using  the  -hfs-type  command  line
              option.

       HFS_CREATOR
              The  default  CREATOR  for  Macintosh  files. Must be exactly 4
              characters.  May be overridden using the  -hfs-creator  command
              line option.

       mkisofs  can also be configured at compile time with defaults for many
       of these fields.  See the file defaults.h.


EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem  image  in  the  file  cd.iso,
       where  the  directory cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD,
       call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge  extensions  of  the  source  directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with  Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir where all files have at least read permission and all files are
       owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a sim-
       ple iso9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
       cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
       files CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO9660', from the source
       directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other files  are  given  CREATOR  and  TYPE
       based on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
               cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
       name README, but have different contents when seen as a  ISO9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the
       CD along with the three README files - but only one will be seen  from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
               -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
               -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
               -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
               README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
               README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e.  the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the
       other two README files will be hidden. Similarly for  the  Joliet  and
       ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible with combina-
       tions of the hide options ...


AUTHOR
       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix, because  we
       must  generate a complete  copy of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  iso9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of a mis-
       nomer, since it not only creates the filesystem, but it also populates
       it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a UNIX  tool  that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       Eric  Youngdale  or  wrote the
       first versions (1993 ... 1998) of the mkisofs utility.  The  copyright
       for  old  versions of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Comput-
       ing, Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the SCSI  transport  library
       and  it's  adaptation  layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from
       1999) of the utility, this makes mkisofs  Copyright  (C)  1999,  2000,
       2001 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS  hybrid  code  Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
       2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow
       mkisofs to read the previous session when  creating  a  multi  session
       image.

       If  mkisofs  is creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes
       and the directory nesting level of the source directory  tree  is  too
       much  for  ISO-9660,  mkisofs will do deep directory relocation.  This
       results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root  directory  of  the
       CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

       The  sparc  boot  support  that  is  implemented  with the -sparc-boot
       options completely follows the official  Sparc  CD  boot  requirements
       from  the Boot prom in Sun Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions for
       Sparc systems use a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is  not
       Sparc  CD boot compliant.  It is annoyingly to see that the Authors of
       SILO don't fix SILO but instead provide a completely unneeded  "patch"
       to  mkisofs  that  incorporates  far more source than the fix for SILO
       would need.

BUGS
       ?      Any files that have hard links to files not in the  tree  being
              copied  to  the  iso9660 filesystem will have an incorrect file
              reference count.

       ?      Does not check for SUSP record(s) in  "."  entry  of  the  root
              directory to verify the existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

              This  problem is present when reading old sessions while adding
              data in multi-session mode.

       ?      Does not properly read relocated directories  in  multi-session
              mode when adding data.

              Any  relocated  deep  directory is lost if the new session does
              not include the deep directory.

              Repeat by: create first session with deep directory  relocation
              then  add  new  session with a single dir that differs from the
              old deep path.

       ?      Does  not  re-use  RR_MOVED  when  doing   multi-session   from
              TRANS.TBL

       ?      Does  not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multi-session
              mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.


HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how I  expect  the  modified
       libhfs routines to work, however there may be situations that either I
       haven't thought of,  or  come  across  when  these  assumptions  fail.
       Therefore  I  can't  guarantee  that  mkisofs  will  work  as expected
       (although I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features
       work  fine,  however,  some  are not fully tested. These are marked as
       Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a  directory  with  the  same  HFS
       name, then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make a unique name
       by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters  have  _N'
       (N  == decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to gen-
       erate unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting"  Apple/Unix  files  or  directories
       (see  above for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to
       use a new name for an Apple/Unix encoded  file/directory.  e.g.  If  a
       Apple/Unix  encoded  file called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then
       you can not use the command line:

              mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs  will  be  unable  to decode "oldname". However, you can graft
       Apple/Unix encoded files or directories as long as you do not  attempt
       to give them new names as above.

       When  creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C,
       only files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However,  if  each session is created with the -part option, then each
       session will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this
       case,  it is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give each ses-
       sion a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear on  the
       Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic  links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing  the
       same  data.  In  some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the hybrid volume
       may be significantly larger. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the
       allocation  block  size  (the  smallest  amount  of  space  a file can
       occupy).  For a 650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb,  for  a  4.7Gb
       DVD it will be about 70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 - although
       the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using
       the  hfsutils  routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume
       as it is set as locked.  The option -hfs-unlock will create an  output
       image that is unlocked - however no changes should be made to the con-
       tents of the volume (unless you really know what  you  are  doing)  as
       it's not a "real" HFS volume.

       Using  the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option
       - the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the  Macintosh
       name.

       Although  mkisofs  does  not alter the contents of a file, if a binary
       file has it's TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Mac-
       intosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May  not  work  with  PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with
       MacOS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be  mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The  SFM  format  is only partially supported - see HFS MACINTOSH FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot options.

       mkisofs  should be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although
       this has not been fully tested.


SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).


FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs  is  available  as  part  of   the   cdrecord   package   from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree  is  available  as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools  package from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take  part  on  the  development  of  mkisofs,
       and/or  mkhybrid,  you  may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending
       mail to:

                 other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address  of  the
       list is:

                 cdwrite@lists.debian.org


MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk


       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       If you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support



Version 2.01                     14 Feb 2003                       MKISOFS(8)