RPM linux command manual

RPM(8)                              Red Hat Linux                          RPM(8)



NAME
       rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS
   QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES:
       rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]



       rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]



       rpm --import PUBKEY ...



       rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest]
           PACKAGE_FILE ...


   INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES:
       rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...



       rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...



       rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...



       rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts]
           [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...


   MISCELLANEOUS:
       rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb}



       rpm {--addsign|--resign} PACKAGE_FILE ...



       rpm {--querytags|--showrc}



       rpm {--setperms|--setugids} PACKAGE_NAME ...


   select-options
        [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE]
        [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE]
        [--fileid MD5] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID]
        [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME]
        [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]


   query-options
        [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump]
        [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list]
        [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT]
        [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state]
        [--triggers,--triggerscripts]


   verify-options
        [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts]
        [--nodigest] [--nosignature]
        [--nolinkto] [--nomd5] [--nosize] [--nouser]
        [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]


   install-options
        [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH]
        [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash]
        [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos]
        [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps]
        [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest]
        [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers]
        [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH]
        [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH]
        [--repackage] [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs]
        [--test]


DESCRIPTION
       rpm  is  a  powerful  Package  Manager,  which  can  be used to build,
       install, query, verify, update, and erase  individual  software  pack-
       ages.  A package consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to
       install and erase the archive files.  The  meta-data  includes  helper
       scripts,  file attributes, and descriptive information about the pack-
       age.  Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to  encap-
       sulate  software  to be installed, and source packages, containing the
       source code and recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

       One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig-
       nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database,
       Rebuild Database,  Resign,  Add  Signature,  Set  Owners/Groups,  Show
       Querytags, and Show Configuration.

   GENERAL OPTIONS
       These options can be used in all the different modes.

       -?, --help
              Print a longer usage message then normal.

       --version
              Print  a single line containing the version number of rpm being
              used.

       --quiet
              Print as little as possible - normally only error messages will
              be displayed.

       -v     Print  verbose information - normally routine progress messages
              will be displayed.

       -vv    Print lots of ugly debugging information.

       --rcfile FILELIST
              Each of the files in  the  colon  separated  FILELIST  is  read
              sequentially  by  rpm  for configuration information.  Only the
              first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be  expanded
              to   the   value   of   $HOME.    The   default   FILELIST   is
              /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red-
              hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

       --pipe CMD
              Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

       --dbpath DIRECTORY
              Use  the  database  in  DIRECTORY  rather than the default path
              /var/lib/rpm

       --root DIRECTORY
              Use the file system tree rooted at  DIRECTORY  for  all  opera-
              tions.  Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will
              be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g.  %post
              if  installing,  or  %prep  if building, a package) will be run
              after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

   INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm install command is


       rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...


       This installs a new package.

       The general form of an rpm upgrade command is


       rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...


       This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to  a  newer
       version.   This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of
       the package are removed after the new package is installed.


       rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...


       This will upgrade packages, but only if an earlier  version  currently
       exists.  The  PACKAGE_FILE  may be specified as an ftp or http URL, in
       which case the package will be downloaded before being installed.  See
       FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpm's internal ftp and http client
       support.


       --aid  Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

       --allfiles
              Installs or upgrades all the missingok files  in  the  package,
              regardless if they exist.

       --badreloc
              Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not
              just those OLDPATH's included in the binary package  relocation
              hint(s).

       --excludepath OLDPATH
              Don't install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

       --excludedocs
              Don't  install  any  files  which  are  marked as documentation
              (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

       --force
              Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and  --oldpackage.

       -h, --hash
              Print  50  hash  marks as the package archive is unpacked.  Use
              with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

       --ignoresize
              Don't check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before
              installing this package.

       --ignorearch
              Allow  installation  or  upgrading even if the architectures of
              the binary package and host don't match.

       --ignoreos
              Allow installation or upgrading even if the  operating  systems
              of the binary package and host don't match.

       --includedocs
              Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

       --justdb
              Update only the database, not the filesystem.

       --nodigest
              Don't verify package or header digests when reading.

       --nosignature
              Don't verify package or header signatures when reading.

       --nodeps
              Don't  do  a  dependency check before installing or upgrading a
              package.

       --nosuggest
              Don't suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

       --noorder
              Don't reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages
              would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.

       --noscripts

       --nopre

       --nopost

       --nopreun

       --nopostun
              Don't  execute the scriptlet of the same name.  The --noscripts
              option is equivalent to

              --nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun

              and turns off the execution of the corresponding  %pre,  %post,
              %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

       --notriggers

       --notriggerin

       --notriggerun

       --notriggerpostun
              Don't  execute  any  trigger  scriptlet of the named type.  The
              --notriggers option is equivalent to

              --notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

              and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig-
              gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

       --oldpackage
              Allow  an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

       --percent
              Print percentages  as  files  are  unpacked  from  the  package
              archive.   This  is intended to make rpm easy to run from other
              tools.

       --prefix NEWPATH
              For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths  that
              start  with  the  installation prefix in the package relocation
              hint(s) to NEWPATH.

       --relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH
              For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths  that
              start  with  OLDPATH  in the package relocation hint(s) to NEW-
              PATH.  This option can be used repeatedly if several  OLDPATH's
              in the package are to be relocated.

       --repackage
              Re-package  the  files before erasing. The previously installed
              package  will  be  named  according  to  the  macro   %_repack-
              age_name_fmt  and will be created in the directory named by the
              macro %_repackage_dir (default value is  /var/spool/repackage).

       --replacefiles
              Install  the  packages  even  if they replace files from other,
              already installed, packages.

       --replacepkgs
              Install the packages even if some of them are already installed
              on this system.

       --test Do  not install the package, simply check for and report poten-
              tial conflicts.

   ERASE OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm erase command is


       rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches]  [--nodeps]  [--noscripts]  [--notrig-
       gers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...


       The following options may also be used:

       --allmatches
              Remove  all  versions  of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME.
              Normally an error is issued if  PACKAGE_NAME  matches  multiple
              packages.

       --nodeps
              Don't check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.

       --noscripts

       --nopreun

       --nopostun
              Don't  execute the scriptlet of the same name.  The --noscripts
              option during package erase is equivalent to

              --nopreun --nopostun

              and turns off the execution of the  corresponding  %preun,  and
              %postun scriptlet(s).

       --notriggers

       --notriggerun

       --notriggerpostun
              Don't  execute  any  trigger  scriptlet of the named type.  The
              --notriggers option is equivalent to

              --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

              and turns off execution of the  corresponding  %triggerun,  and
              %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

       --repackage
              Re-package  the  files before erasing. The previously installed
              package  will  be  named  according  to  the  macro   %_repack-
              age_name_fmt  and will be created in the directory named by the
              macro %_repackage_dir (default value is  /var/spool/repackage).

       --test Don't  really  uninstall anything, just go through the motions.
              Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

   QUERY OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm query command is


       rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]


       You may specify the format that package information should be  printed
       in. To do this, you use the

        --qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

       option,  followed  by  the  QUERYFMT format string.  Query formats are
       modified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format  is
       made  up  of  static  strings  (which may include standard C character
       escapes  for  newlines,  tabs,  and  other  special  characters)   and
       printf(3)  type  formatters.   As rpm already knows the type to print,
       the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by  the  name
       of  the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names
       are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag  name
       may be omitted as well.

       Alternate  output  formats  may be requested by following the tag with
       :typetag.  Currently, the following types are supported:

       :armor  Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

       :base64
              Encode binary data using base64.

       :date  Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

       :day   Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

       :depflags
              Format dependency flags.

       :fflags
              Format file flags.

       :hex   Format in hexadecimal.

       :octal Format in octal.

       :perms Format file permissions.

       :shescape
              Escape single quotes for use in a script.

       :triggertype
              Display trigger suffix.

       For example, to print only the names  of  the  packages  queried,  you
       could  use  %{NAME}  as the format string.  To print the packages name
       and  distribution  information  in  two   columns,   you   could   use
       %-30{NAME}%{DISTRIBUTION}.   rpm  will print a list of all of the tags
       it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

       There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection,  and
       information selection.

   PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS:
       PACKAGE_NAME
              Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME.

       -a, --all
              Query all installed packages.

       -f, --file FILE
              Query package owning FILE.

       --fileid MD5
              Query  package  that contains a given file identifier, i.e. the
              MD5 digest of the file contents.

       -g, --group GROUP
              Query packages with the group of GROUP.

       --hdrid SHA1
              Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the
              SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

       -p, --package PACKAGE_FILE
              Query  an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE.  The PACKAGE_FILE
              may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the
              package  header  will  be downloaded and queried.  See FTP/HTTP
              OPTIONS for information on rpm's internal ftp and  http  client
              support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package,
              will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest.  Comments are
              permitted, starting with a '#', and each line of a package man-
              ifest file may include white space separated glob  expressions,
              including  URL's  with  remote  glob  expressions, that will be
              expanded to paths that are substituted in place of the  package
              manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

       --pkgid MD5
              Query  package  that  contains a given package identifier, i.e.
              the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

       --querybynumber HDRNUM
              Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only
              for debugging.

       --specfile SPECFILE
              Parse  and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not
              all the information (e.g. file lists) is available,  this  type
              of  query  permits  rpm  to be used to extract information from
              spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

       --tid TID
              Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction  identifier.
              A   unix   time  stamp  is  currently  used  as  a  transaction
              identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a  single
              transaction have a common identifier.

       --triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME
              Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

       --whatprovides CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

       --whatrequires CAPABILITY
              Query  all  packages  that requires CAPABILITY for proper func-
              tioning.

   PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS:
       --changelog
              Display change information for the package.

       -c, --configfiles
              List only configuration files (implies -l).

       -d, --docfiles
              List only documentation files (implies -l).

       --dump Dump file information as follows:


              path size mtime md5sum mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink


       This option must be used with at least one of -l, -c, -d.

       --filesbypkg
              List all the files in each selected package.

       -i, --info
              Display  package  information,  including  name,  version,  and
              description.  This uses the --queryformat if one was specified.

       --last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest
              packages are at the top.

       -l, --list
              List files in package.

       --provides
              List capabilities this package provides.

       -R, --requires
              List packages on which this package depends.

       --scripts
              List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of
              the installation and uninstallation processes.

       -s, --state
              Display the states of files in the package (implies  -l).   The
              state  of  each  file  is  one  of  normal,  not  installed, or
              replaced.

       --triggers, --triggerscripts
              Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the
              package.

   VERIFY OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm verify command is


       rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]


       Verifying  a package compares information about the installed files in
       the package with information about the files taken  from  the  package
       metadata  stored  in  the rpm database.  Among other things, verifying
       compares the size, MD5 sum, permissions, type, owner and group of each
       file.  Any discrepancies are displayed.  Files that were not installed
       from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal-
       lation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently ignored.

       The  package  selection  options  are the same as for package querying
       (including package manifest files as arguments).  Other options unique
       to verify mode are:

       --nodeps
              Don't verify dependencies of packages.

       --nodigest
              Don't verify package or header digests when reading.

       --nofiles
              Don't verify any attributes of package files.

       --noscripts
              Don't execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

       --nosignature
              Don't verify package or header signatures when reading.

       --nolinkto

       --nomd5

       --nosize

       --nouser

       --nogroup

       --nomtime

       --nomode

       --nordev
              Don't verify the corresponding file attribute.

       The  format  of  the  output  is  a string of 8 characters, a possible
       attribute marker:

       c %config configuration file.
       d %doc documentation file.
       g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload).
       l %license license file.
       r %readme readme file.

       from the package header, followed by the file name.   Each  of  the  8
       characters  denotes  the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the
       file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the  database.   A
       single  "."  (period) means the test passed, while a single "?" (ques-
       tion mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g.  file  per-
       missions  prevent  reading).  Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened)
       character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify test:

       S file Size differs
       M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type)
       5 MD5 sum differs
       D Device major/minor number mismatch
       L readLink(2) path mismatch
       U User ownership differs
       G Group ownership differs
       T mTime differs


   DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION
       The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are



       rpm --import PUBKEY ...


       rpm {--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest]
           PACKAGE_FILE ...


       The --checksig option checks all the digests and signatures  contained
       in  PACKAGE_FILE  to  ensure  the integrity and origin of the package.
       Note that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read,  and
       --checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso-
       ciated with a package.

       Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key.  An  ASCII
       armored public key can be added to the rpm database using --import. An
       imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is
       performed  exactly like package management. For example, all currently
       imported public keys can be displayed by:

       rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

       Details about a specific public key, when imported, can  be  displayed
       by querying.  Here's information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

       rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

       Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages.
       Here's how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

       rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

   SIGNING A PACKAGE
       rpm --addsign|--resign PACKAGE_FILE ...


       Both of the --addsign and --resign options  generate  and  insert  new
       signatures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing
       signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is  no
       difference in behavior currently.

   USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES
       In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG
       and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By  default,
       rpm  uses  the  same  conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the
       $GNUPGHOME environment variable.  If your key rings  are  not  located
       where  GPG  expects  them  to be, you will need to configure the macro
       %_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

       For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and  rpm,  only  V3
       OpenPGP  signature  packets  should  be configured.  Either DSA or RSA
       verification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

       If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you  also
       need  to  create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man-
       ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

       %_signature
              The signature type.  Right now only gpg and pgp are  supported.

       %_gpg_name
              The  name  of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your
              packages.

       For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user  "John
       Doe  " from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using
       the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

       %_signature gpg
       %_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg
       %_gpg_name John Doe 
       %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg

       in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con-
       figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration.

   REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is


       rpm  {--initdb|--rebuilddb}  [-v]  [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIREC-
       TORY]


       Use --initdb to create a new database, use --rebuilddb to rebuild  the
       database indices from the installed package headers.

   SHOWRC
       The command

       rpm --showrc

       shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are currently set
       in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

   FTP/HTTP OPTIONS
       rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP  client  so  that  packages  can  be
       queried  or  installed  from the internet.  Package files for install,
       upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style
       URL:

       ftp://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/path/to/package.rpm

       If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for
       (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit-
       ted,  anonymous  ftp is used.  In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp trans-
       fers are performed.

       rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

       --ftpproxy HOST
              The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans-
              fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which
              use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config-
              uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

       --ftpport PORT
              The  TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy
              ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be
              specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

       rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

       --httpproxy HOST
              The  host  HOST  will  be  used  as a proxy server for all http
              transfers. This option may also be specified by configuring the
              macro %_httpproxy.

       --httpport PORT
              The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy
              http server instead of the default port. This option  may  also
              be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES
   Executing rpmbuild
       The  build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe-
       cutable. Although legacy compatibility provided by  the  popt  aliases
       below has been adequate, the compatibility is not perfect; hence build
       mode compatibility through popt aliases is  being  removed  from  rpm.
       Install the rpmbuild package, and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of
       all the rpm build modes previously documented here in rpm(8).

       Add the following lines to /etc/popt if you wish to continue  invoking
       rpmbuild from the rpm command line:

       rpm     exec --bp               rpmb -bp
       rpm     exec --bc               rpmb -bc
       rpm     exec --bi               rpmb -bi
       rpm     exec --bl               rpmb -bl
       rpm     exec --ba               rpmb -ba
       rpm     exec --bb               rpmb -bb
       rpm     exec --bs               rpmb -bs
       rpm     exec --tp               rpmb -tp
       rpm     exec --tc               rpmb -tc
       rpm     exec --ti               rpmb -ti
       rpm     exec --tl               rpmb -tl
       rpm     exec --ta               rpmb -ta
       rpm     exec --tb               rpmb -tb
       rpm     exec --ts               rpmb -ts
       rpm     exec --rebuild          rpmb --rebuild
       rpm     exec --recompile        rpmb --recompile
       rpm     exec --clean            rpmb --clean
       rpm     exec --rmsource         rpmb --rmsource
       rpm     exec --rmspec           rpmb --rmspec
       rpm     exec --target           rpmb --target
       rpm     exec --short-circuit    rpmb --short-circuit

FILES
   rpmrc Configuration
       /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc
       /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc
       /etc/rpmrc
       ~/.rpmrc

   Macro Configuration
       /usr/lib/rpm/macros
       /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros
       /etc/rpm/macros
       ~/.rpmmacros

   Database
       /var/lib/rpm/Basenames
       /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname
       /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames
       /var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s
       /var/lib/rpm/Group
       /var/lib/rpm/Installtid
       /var/lib/rpm/Name
       /var/lib/rpm/Packages
       /var/lib/rpm/Providename
       /var/lib/rpm/Provideversion
       /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys
       /var/lib/rpm/Removed
       /var/lib/rpm/Requirename
       /var/lib/rpm/Requireversion
       /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header
       /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5
       /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

   Temporary
       /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO
       popt(3),
       rpm2cpio(8),
       rpmbuild(8),

       http://www.rpm.org/ 

AUTHORS
       Marc Ewing 
       Jeff Johnson 
       Erik Troan 



Red Hat, Inc.                    09 June 2002                          RPM(8)