SENDMAIL linux command manual

SENDMAIL(8)                                                    SENDMAIL(8)



NAME
       sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [flags] [address ...]
       newaliases
       mailq [-v]
       hoststat
       purgestat
       smtpd

DESCRIPTION
       Sendmail  sends  a message to one or more recipients, routing the mes-
       sage over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork
       forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is  used  only  to  deliver
       pre-formatted messages.

       With  no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the mes-
       sage  found  there  to all of the addresses listed.  It determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in a  file  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  'john' sends to 'group', and 'group' includes 'john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to 'john'.

   Parameters
       -Ac    Use submit.cf even if the operation mode does not  indicate  an
              initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use sendmail.cf even if the operation mode indicates an initial
              mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal values  are  7BIT  or
              8BITMIME.

       -ba    Go  into  ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF,
              and all messages will be generated with a  CR-LF  at  the  end.
              Also, the ''From:'' and ''Sender:'' fields are examined for the
              name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.  Sendmail will fork and run in background lis-
              tening  on  socket  25  for incoming SMTP connections.  This is
              normally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of  entries in the queue(s); only available with
              shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on standard  input
              and  output.   This  flag implies all the operations of the -ba
              flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses and  shows
              the  steps  in  parsing; it is used for debugging configuration
              tables.

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a message.
              Verify  mode  is  normally used for validating users or mailing
              lists.

       -Cfile Use  alternate  configuration  file.   Sendmail  gives  up  any
              enhanced  (set-user-ID or set-group-ID) privileges if an alter-
              nate configuration file is specified.

       -dcategory.level...
              Set the debugging flag for  category  to  level.   Category  is
              either  an integer or a name specifying the topic, and level an
              integer specifying  the  level  of  debugging  output  desired.
              Higher  levels  generally mean more output.  More than one flag
              can be specified by separating them with  commas.   A  list  of
              numeric  debugging  categories  can  be found in the TRACEFLAGS
              file in the sendmail source distribution.
              The option -d0.1 prints the version of sendmail and the options
              it was compiled with.
              Most  other categories are only useful with, and documented in,
              sendmail's source code.

       -Ffullname
              Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets the name of the ''from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender
              of  the  mail).   This  address  may  also be used in the From:
              header if that header is  missing  during  initial  submission.
              The envelope sender address is used as the recipient for deliv-
              ery status notifications and may also appear in a  Return-Path:
              header.   -f should only be used by ''trusted'' users (normally
              root, daemon, and network) or if the person you are  trying  to
              become  is  the  same  as the person you are.  Otherwise, an X-
              Authentication-Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls
              sendmail .

       -hN    Set  the  hop  count  to N.  The hop count is incremented every
              time the mail is processed.  When it reaches a limit, the  mail
              is  returned  with  an error message, the victim of an aliasing
              loop.  If not specified, ''Received:'' lines in the message are
              counted.

       -i     Ignore  dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages.
              This should be set if you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set  delivery  status notification conditions to dsn, which can
              be 'never' for no notifications or a comma  separated  list  of
              the values 'failure' to be notified if delivery failed, 'delay'
              to be notified if delivery is  delayed,  and  'success'  to  be
              notified when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
              Set  option option to the specified value.  This form uses long
              names.  See below for more details.

       -ox value
              Set option x to the specified value.   This  form  uses  single
              character  names  only.   The  short names are not described in
              this manual page; see the Sendmail Installation  and  Operation
              Guide for details.

       -pprotocol
              Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.  This
              can be a simple protocol name such as ''UUCP''  or  a  protocol
              and hostname, such as ''UUCP:ucbvax''.

       -q[time]
              Process  saved  messages  in  the queue at given intervals.  If
              time is omitted, process the queue once.  Time is  given  as  a
              tagged  number,  with  's'  being  seconds,  'm'  being minutes
              (default), 'h' being hours,  'd'  being  days,  and  'w'  being
              weeks.   For  example,  '-q1h30m' or '-q90m' would both set the
              timeout to one hour thirty minutes.  By default, sendmail  will
              run  in  the  background.   This option can be used safely with
              -bd.

       -qp[time]
              Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically  forking
              a  child  to process the queue, sendmail forks a single persis-
              tent child for each queue that  alternates  between  processing
              the  queue  and sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argu-
              ment; it defaults to 1 second.  The process will  always  sleep
              at least 5 seconds if the queue was empty in the previous queue
              run.

       -qf    Process saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(), but
              run in the foreground.

       -qG name
              Process jobs in queue group called name only.

       -q[!]Isubstr
              Limit  processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of the queue id or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]Rsubstr
              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a  substring
              of one of the recipients or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]Ssubstr
              Limit  processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of the sender or not when !  is specified.

       -R return
              Set the amount of the message to be  returned  if  the  message
              bounces.   The  return  parameter  can  be 'full' to return the
              entire message or 'hdrs' to return only the  headers.   In  the
              latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read  message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be
              scanned for recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be deleted
              before transmission.

       -V envid
              Set  the  original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP
              to servers that support DSNs and is returned  in  DSN-compliant
              error messages.

       -v     Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
              Log all traffic in and out of  mailers  in  the  indicated  log
              file.   This should only be used as a last resort for debugging
              mailer bugs.  It will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the arguments
              as addresses.

   Options
       There  are  also a number of processing options that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will only be used by a system administrator.  Options  may
       be set either on the command line using the -o flag (for short names),
       the -O flag (for long names), or in the configuration file.  This is a
       partial  list limited to those options that are likely to be useful on
       the command line and only shows the long names; for  a  complete  list
       (and  details), consult the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide.
       The options are:

       AliasFile=file
              Use alternate alias file.

       HoldExpensive
              On mailers that are considered  ''expensive''  to  connect  to,
              don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       CheckpointInterval=N
              Checkpoint  the  queue file after every N successful deliveries
              (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate deliveries  when
              sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.

       DeliveryMode=x
              Set  the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are 'i' for inter-
              active  (synchronous)  delivery,  'b'  for  background   (asyn-
              chronous)  delivery, 'q' for queue only - i.e., actual delivery
              is done the next time the queue is run, and 'd' for deferred  -
              the  same  as  'q'  except that database lookups for maps which
              have set the -D option (default for the host map) are  avoided.

       ErrorMode=x
              Set  error  processing  to mode x.  Valid modes are 'm' to mail
              back the error message, 'w' to ''write'' back the error message
              (or  mail it back if the sender is not logged in), 'p' to print
              the errors on the terminal (default), 'q' to throw  away  error
              messages  (only exit status is returned), and 'e' to do special
              processing for the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is  not
              mailed  back  by modes 'm' or 'w' and if the sender is local to
              this machine, a copy of the message is  appended  to  the  file
              dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

       SaveFromLine
              Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

       MaxHopCount=N
              The  maximum  number  of  times a message is allowed to ''hop''
              before we decide it is in a loop.

       IgnoreDots
              Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message  termina-
              tor.

       SendMimeErrors
              Send  error  messages  in  MIME  format.   If  not set, the DSN
              (Delivery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

       ConnectionCacheTimeout=timeout
              Set connection cache timeout.

       ConnectionCacheSize=N
              Set connection cache size.

       LogLevel=n
              The log level.

       MeToo=False
              Don't send to ''me'' (the sender) if I am in  an  alias  expan-
              sion.

       CheckAliases
              Validate  the right hand side of aliases during a newaliases(1)
              command.

       OldStyleHeaders
              If set, this message may have old style headers.  If  not  set,
              this  message  is  guaranteed  to have new style headers (i.e.,
              commas instead of spaces between addresses).  If set, an  adap-
              tive algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header
              format in most cases.

       QueueDirectory=queuedir
              Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       StatusFile=file
              Save statistics in the named file.

       Timeout.queuereturn=time
              Set the timeout on undelivered messages in  the  queue  to  the
              specified  time.  After delivery has failed (e.g., because of a
              host being down) for this amount of time, failed messages  will
              be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

       UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase
              If set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding informa-
              tion.  You can consider this an adjunct to the aliasing  mecha-
              nism,  except  that the database is intended to be distributed;
              aliases are local to a particular host.  This may not be avail-
              able  if your sendmail does not have the USERDB option compiled
              in.

       ForkEachJob
              Fork each job during queue runs.  May be convenient on  memory-
              poor machines.

       SevenBitInput
              Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

       EightBitMode=mode
              Set  the  handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations
              to mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit  MIME  format,  p
              (pass) will pass it as eight bits (but violates protocols), and
              s (strict) will bounce the message.

       MinQueueAge=timeout
              Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue between  attempts
              to send it.

       DefaultCharSet=charset
              Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit data that is
              not otherwise labelled.

       DialDelay=sleeptime
              If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds  and
              try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

       NoRecipientAction=action
              Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:, Cc:
              or Bcc:) in the message to  action:  none  leaves  the  message
              unchanged,  add-to  adds a To: header with the envelope recipi-
              ents, add-apparently-to adds an Apparently-To: header with  the
              envelope  recipients,  add-bcc  adds  an empty Bcc: header, and
              add-to-undisclosed adds  a  header  reading  'To:  undisclosed-
              recipients:;'.

       MaxDaemonChildren=N
              Sets  the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP dae-
              mon will allow to spawn at any time to N.

       ConnectionRateThrottle=N
              Sets the maximum number of connections per second to  the  SMTP
              port to N.

       In  aliases,  the  first  character of a name may be a vertical bar to
       cause interpretation of the rest of the name as a command to pipe  the
       mail  to.  It may be necessary to quote the name to keep sendmail from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example, a  common
       alias is:

              msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases may also have the syntax '':include:filename'' to ask sendmail
       to read the named file for a list  of  recipients.   For  example,  an
       alias such as:

              poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would  read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses making
       up the group.

       Sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are
       defined in :

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

       EX_NOUSER
              User name not recognized.

       EX_UNAVAILABLE
              Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

       EX_SYNTAX
              Syntax error in address.

       EX_SOFTWARE
              Internal software error, including bad arguments.

       EX_OSERR
              Temporary operating system error, such as ''cannot fork''.

       EX_NOHOST
              Host name not recognized.

       EX_TEMPFAIL
              Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If  invoked  as  newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.
       If invoked as mailq, sendmail will print  the  contents  of  the  mail
       queue.   If  invoked  as  hoststat, sendmail will print the persistent
       host status database.  If invoked as purgestat,  sendmail  will  purge
       expired  entries from the persistent host status database.  If invoked
       as smtpd, sendmail will act as a daemon, as if  the  -bd  option  were
       specified.

NOTES
       sendmail  often  gets  blamed  for many problems that are actually the
       result of other problems, such as overly permissive modes on  directo-
       ries.   For  this reason, sendmail checks the modes on system directo-
       ries and files to determine if they can be  trusted.   Although  these
       checks  can  be turned off and your system security reduced by setting
       the DontBlameSendmail option, the permission problems should be fixed.
       For more information, see:

       http://www.sendmail.org/tips/DontBlameSendmail.html

FILES
       Except  for  the file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself the following path-
       names are all specified in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  Thus, these  values
       are only approximations.


        /etc/aliases
              raw data for alias names

        /etc/mail/aliases.db
              data base of alias names

        /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
              configuration file

        /etc/mail/helpfile
              help file

        /var/log/mail/statistics
              collected statistics

        /var/spool/mqueue/*
              temp files

SEE ALSO
       mail(1), rmail(1), syslog(3), aliases(5), mailaddr(7),

       DARPA  Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.  Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.

       http://www.sendmail.org/

HISTORY
       The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.



                         $Date: 2003/12/01 17:02:00 $             SENDMAIL(8)