TAIL linux command manual

TAIL(1)                          User Commands                         TAIL(1)

       tail - output the last part of files

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       Print  the  last  10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.   With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long options are mandatory for short options

              keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail
              starts  or if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with

       -c, --bytes=N
              output the last N bytes

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as  the  file  grows;  -f,  --follow,  and
              --follow=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=N
              output the last N lines, instead of the last 10

              with  --follow=name,  reopen  a FILE which has not changed size
              after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has  been  unlinked
              or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       -s, --sleep-interval=S
              with  -f,  sleep  for  approximately  S  seconds  (default 1.0)
              between iterations.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines) is  a  '+',
       print  beginning with the Nth item from the start of each file, other-
       wise, print the last N items in the file.  N  may  have  a  multiplier
       suffix: b 512, k 1024, m 1024*1024.

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue
       to  track  its  end.   This default behavior is not desirable when you
       really want to track the  actual  name  of  the  file,  not  the  file
       descriptor  (e.g.,  log  rotation).   Use  --follow=name in that case.
       That causes tail to track the named file by reopening it  periodically
       to see if it has been removed and recreated by some other program.

       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-

       Report bugs to .

       Copyright (C) 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying  conditions.   There
       is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICU-

       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the  info  and  tail programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info coreutils tail

       should give you access to the complete manual.

tail (coreutils) 5.2.1             May 2004                           TAIL(1)