TROFF linux command manual

TROFF(1)                                                           TROFF(1)



NAME
       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -mname ]
             [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [ -wname ]
             [ -Wname ] [ files... ]

       It  is  possible  to have whitespace between a command line option and
       its parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It  is  part  of
       the  groff  document formatting system.  It is functionally compatible
       with UNIX troff, but has many extensions, see groff_diff(7).   Usually
       it  should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run
       preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.

OPTIONS
       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
                 backtrace should help track down the  cause  of  the  error.
                 The  line  numbers  given in the backtrace may not always be
                 correct, for troff's idea of line numbers gets  confused  by
                 as or am requests.

       -c        Disable  color  output  (always  disabled  in  compatibility
                 mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs
       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must be  a  one  letter
                 name.

       -E        Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't
                 affect messages output to standard error by  macro  packages
                 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search  in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirecto-
                 ries devname (name is the name of the device) and there  for
                 the  DESC  file  and  font files.  dir is scanned before all
                 other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files have
                 been processed.

       -mname    Read  in  the  file  name.tmac.   If  it  isn't  found,  try
                 tmac.name instead.  It will be first searched for in  direc-
                 tories given with the -M command line option, then in direc-
                 tories given in the  GROFF_TMAC_PATH  environment  variable,
                 then  in the current directory (only if in unsafe mode), the
                 home          directory,           /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,
                 /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,                              and
                 /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac.

       -Mdir     Search directory (or directory path) dir  for  macro  files.
                 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output  only  pages in list, which is a comma-separated list
                 of page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print  every
                 page  between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-
                 means print every page from n.  troff will exit after print-
                 ing the last page in the list.

       -rcn
       -rname=n  Set  number register c or name to n; c must be a one charac-
                 ter name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare output for device name, rather than the default  ps.

       -U        Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open,
                 opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons, these  poten-
                 tially  dangerous  requests are disabled otherwise.  It will
                 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings  are  described  in
                 the  section  WARNINGS  below.   For  example, to enable all
                 warnings, use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.

WARNINGS
       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following
       categories.   The  name associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the warn  request,  and  by  the
       .warn  register;  it  is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composi-
       tion.


                +---------------------+----------------------------+
                |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning   |
                +---------------------+----------------------------+
                |  0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg         |
                |  1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab         |
                |  2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace |
                |  3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing     |
                |  4     16   el      |  14    16384   input       |
                |  5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape      |
                |  6     64   range   |  16    65536   space       |
                |  7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font        |
                |  8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig          |
                |  9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color       |
                +---------------------+----------------------------+

       break           4   In fill mode, lines which could not be  broken  so
                           that  their  length was less than the line length.
                           This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent  characters.   This  is  enabled   by
                           default.

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use  of di or da without an argument when there is
                           no current diversion.

       el             16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized  escape  sequences.  When an unrecog-
                           nized escape sequence is encountered,  the  escape
                           character is ignored.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid  escapes  in  text  ignored  with  the  ig
                           request.  These are  conditions  that  are  errors
                           when they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use  of  undefined strings, macros and diversions.
                           When an undefined string, macro  or  diversion  is
                           used,  that  string  is  automatically  defined as
                           empty.  So, in most cases,  at  most  one  warning
                           will be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests  that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This is  enabled  by
                           default.

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use  of undefined number registers.  When an unde-
                           fined number register is used,  that  register  is
                           automatically  defined  to have a value of 0.  So,
                           in most cases, at most one warning will  be  given
                           for use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing  space  between a request or macro and its
                           argument.  This warning  will  be  given  when  an
                           undefined  name  longer  than  two  characters  is
                           encountered, and the first two characters  of  the
                           name  make  a  defined name.  The request or macro
                           will not be invoked.  When this warning is  given,
                           no   macro  is  automatically  defined.   This  is
                           enabled by default.  This warning will never occur
                           in compatibility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate  use of a tab character.  Either use
                           of a tab character where a number was expected, or
                           use  of  tab  character in an unquoted macro argu-
                           ment.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
              covers  all  warnings  that  are  useful with traditional macro
              packages.

       w      All warnings.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
              A colon separated list of directories in which  to  search  for
              macro  files.   troff  will  scan  directories  given in the -M
              option before  these,  and  in  standard  directories  (current
              directory     if    in    unsafe    mode,    home    directory,
              /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,           /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,
              /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
              Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
              A  colon  separated  list of directories in which to search for
              the devname directory.  troff will scan  directories  given  in
              the  -F  option  before  these,  and  in  standard  directories
              (/usr/share/groff/site-font,      /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font,
              /usr/lib/font) after these.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/troffrc
              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/troffrc-end
              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/name.tmac
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/tmac.name
              Macro files

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devname/DESC
              Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devname/F
              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U  option  is  given).   Use  the  -M  command  line  option  or  the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories  to  the
       search path if necessary.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Doc-
       umentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have received  a
       copy  of  the  FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       GNU copyleft site ?http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html?.  This  docu-
       ment  was  written by James Clark, with modifications from Werner Lem-
       berg ?wl@gnu.org? and Bernd Warken ?bwarken@mayn.de?

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

       groff(7)
              A description of the groff language, including a short but com-
              plete  reference  of  all  predefined  requests, registers, and
              escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this is  called
              by

                     man 7 groff

       groff_diff(7)
              The  differences  of the groff language and the classical troff
              language.  Currently, this is the most actual document  of  the
              groff system.

       roff(7)
              An overview over groff and other roff systems, including point-
              ers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf. info(1),  presents  all  groff  documentation
       within a single document.



Groff Version 1.18.1          16 September 2002                      TROFF(1)