WGET linux command manual

WGET(1)                             GNU Wget                           WGET(1)

       Wget - The non-interactive network downloader.

       wget [option]... [URL]...

       GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from
       the Web.  It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as
       retrieval through HTTP proxies.

       Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background,
       while the user is not logged on.  This allows you to start a retrieval
       and disconnect from the system, letting Wget finish the work.  By con-
       trast, most of the Web browsers require constant user's presence,
       which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.

       Wget can follow links in HTML and XHTML pages and create local ver-
       sions of remote web sites, fully recreating the directory structure of
       the original site.  This is sometimes referred to as ''recursive down-
       loading.''  While doing that, Wget respects the Robot Exclusion Stan-
       dard (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert the links in
       downloaded HTML files to the local files for offline viewing.

       Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network
       connections; if a download fails due to a network problem, it will
       keep retrying until the whole file has been retrieved.  If the server
       supports regetting, it will instruct the server to continue the down-
       load from where it left off.

       Basic Startup Options

           Display the version of Wget.

           Print a help message describing all of Wget's command-line

           Go to background immediately after startup.  If no output file is
           specified via the -o, output is redirected to wget-log.

       -e command
       --execute command
           Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A command thus
           invoked will be executed after the commands in .wgetrc, thus tak-
           ing precedence over them.  If you need to specify more than one
           wgetrc command, use multiple instances of -e.

       Logging and Input File Options

       -o logfile
           Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally reported
           to standard error.

       -a logfile
           Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it appends to
           logfile instead of overwriting the old log file.  If logfile does
           not exist, a new file is created.

           Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to the
           developers of Wget if it does not work properly.  Your system
           administrator may have chosen to compile Wget without debug sup-
           port, in which case -d will not work.  Please note that compiling
           with debug support is always safe---Wget compiled with the debug
           support will not print any debug info unless requested with -d.

           Turn off Wget's output.

           Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default
           output is verbose.

           Non-verbose output---turn off verbose without being completely
           quiet (use -q for that), which means that error messages and basic
           information still get printed.

       -i file
           Read URLs from file, in which case no URLs need to be on the com-
           mand line.  If there are URLs both on the command line and in an
           input file, those on the command lines will be the first ones to
           be retrieved.  The file need not be an HTML document (but no harm
           if it is)---it is enough if the URLs are just listed sequentially.

           However, if you specify --force-html, the document will be
           regarded as html.  In that case you may have problems with rela-
           tive links, which you can solve either by adding "
" to the documents or by specifying --base=url on the
           command line.

           When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML
           file.  This enables you to retrieve relative links from existing
           HTML files on your local disk, by adding "
" to
           HTML, or using the --base command-line option.

       -B URL
           When used in conjunction with -F, prepends URL to relative links
           in the file specified by -i.

       Download Options

           When making client TCP/IP connections, "bind()" to ADDRESS on the
           local machine.  ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or IP
           address.  This option can be useful if your machine is bound to
           multiple IPs.

       -t number
           Set number of retries to number.  Specify 0 or inf for infinite
           retrying.  The default is to retry 20 times, with the exception of
           fatal errors like ''connection refused'' or ''not found'' (404),
           which are not retried.

       -O file
           The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but
           all will be concatenated together and written to file.  If file
           already exists, it will be overwritten.  If the file is -, the
           documents will be written to standard output.

           If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory,
           Wget's behavior depends on a few options, including -nc.  In cer-
           tain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten, upon
           repeated download.  In other cases it will be preserved.

           When running Wget without -N, -nc, or -r, downloading the same
           file in the same directory will result in the original copy of
           file being preserved and the second copy being named file.1.  If
           that file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be named
           file.2, and so on.  When -nc is specified, this behavior is sup-
           pressed, and Wget will refuse to download newer copies of file.
           Therefore, ''"no-clobber"'' is actually a misnomer in this
           mode---it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the numeric suf-
           fixes were already preventing clobbering), but rather the multiple
           version saving that's prevented.

           When running Wget with -r, but without -N or -nc, re-downloading a
           file will result in the new copy simply overwriting the old.
           Adding -nc will prevent this behavior, instead causing the origi-
           nal version to be preserved and any newer copies on the server to
           be ignored.

           When running Wget with -N, with or without -r, the decision as to
           whether or not to download a newer copy of a file depends on the
           local and remote timestamp and size of the file.  -nc may not be
           specified at the same time as -N.

           Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or
           .htm will be loaded from the local disk and parsed as if they had
           been retrieved from the Web.

           Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful when
           you want to finish up a download started by a previous instance of
           Wget, or by another program.  For instance:

                   wget -c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls-lR.Z

           If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current directory, Wget
           will assume that it is the first portion of the remote file, and
           will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset equal
           to the length of the local file.

           Note that you don't need to specify this option if you just want
           the current invocation of Wget to retry downloading a file should
           the connection be lost midway through.  This is the default behav-
           ior.  -c only affects resumption of downloads started prior to
           this invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting

           Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote
           file to ls-lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z file alone.

           Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a non-empty file, and it
           turns out that the server does not support continued downloading,
           Wget will refuse to start the download from scratch, which would
           effectively ruin existing contents.  If you really want the down-
           load to start from scratch, remove the file.

           Also beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which is of
           equal size as the one on the server, Wget will refuse to download
           the file and print an explanatory message.  The same happens when
           the file is smaller on the server than locally (presumably because
           it was changed on the server since your last download
           attempt)---because ''continuing'' is not meaningful, no download

           On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that's
           bigger on the server than locally will be considered an incomplete
           download and only "(length(remote) - length(local))" bytes will be
           downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file.  This behav-
           ior can be desirable in certain cases---for instance, you can use
           wget -c to download just the new portion that's been appended to a
           data collection or log file.

           However, if the file is bigger on the server because it's been
           changed, as opposed to just appended to, you'll end up with a gar-
           bled file.  Wget has no way of verifying that the local file is
           really a valid prefix of the remote file.  You need to be espe-
           cially careful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r, since
           every file will be considered as an "incomplete download" candi-

           Another instance where you'll get a garbled file if you try to use
           -c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that inserts a ''transfer
           interrupted'' string into the local file.  In the future a ''roll-
           back'' option may be added to deal with this case.

           Note that -c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP servers
           that support the "Range" header.

           Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use.  Legal
           indicators are ''dot'' and ''bar''.

           The ''bar'' indicator is used by default.  It draws an ASCII
           progress bar graphics (a.k.a ''thermometer'' display) indicating
           the status of retrieval.  If the output is not a TTY, the ''dot''
           bar will be used by default.

           Use --progress=dot to switch to the ''dot'' display.  It traces
           the retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot represent-
           ing a fixed amount of downloaded data.

           When using the dotted retrieval, you may also set the style by
           specifying the type as dot:style.  Different styles assign differ-
           ent meaning to one dot.  With the "default" style each dot repre-
           sents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a line.
           The "binary" style has a more ''computer''-like orientation---8K
           dots, 16-dots clusters and 48 dots per line (which makes for 384K
           lines).  The "mega" style is suitable for downloading very large
           files---each dot represents 64K retrieved, there are eight dots in
           a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so each line contains 3M).

           Note that you can set the default style using the "progress"
           command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the com-
           mand line.  The exception is that, when the output is not a TTY,
           the ''dot'' progress will be favored over ''bar''.  To force the
           bar output, use --progress=bar:force.

           Turn on time-stamping.

           Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP

           When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider,
           which means that it will not download the pages, just check that
           they are there.  For example, you can use Wget to check your book-

                   wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

           This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the
           functionality of real web spiders.

       -T seconds
           Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is equivalent to
           specifying --dns-timeout, --connect-timeout, and --read-timeout,
           all at the same time.

           Whenever Wget connects to or reads from a remote host, it checks
           for a timeout and aborts the operation if the time expires.  This
           prevents anomalous occurrences such as hanging reads or infinite
           connects.  The only timeout enabled by default is a 900-second
           timeout for reading.  Setting timeout to 0 disables checking for

           Unless you know what you are doing, it is best not to set any of
           the timeout-related options.

           Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds.  DNS lookups that
           don't complete within the specified time will fail.  By default,
           there is no timeout on DNS lookups, other than that implemented by
           system libraries.

           Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP connections that
           take longer to establish will be aborted.  By default, there is no
           connect timeout, other than that implemented by system libraries.

           Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.  Reads that
           take longer will fail.  The default value for read timeout is 900

           Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may
           be expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes
           with the m suffix.  For example, --limit-rate=20k will limit the
           retrieval rate to 20KB/s.  This kind of thing is useful when, for
           whatever reason, you don't want Wget to consume the entire avail-
           able bandwidth.

           Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the appropriate
           amount of time after a network read that took less time than spec-
           ified by the rate.  Eventually this strategy causes the TCP trans-
           fer to slow down to approximately the specified rate.  However, it
           may take some time for this balance to be achieved, so don't be
           surprised if limiting the rate doesn't work well with very small

       -w seconds
           Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use
           of this option is recommended, as it lightens the server load by
           making the requests less frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the
           time can be specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in hours
           using "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.

           Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network
           or the destination host is down, so that Wget can wait long enough
           to reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before the

           If you don't want Wget to wait between every retrieval, but only
           between retries of failed downloads, you can use this option.
           Wget will use linear backoff, waiting 1 second after the first
           failure on a given file, then waiting 2 seconds after the second
           failure on that file, up to the maximum number of seconds you
           specify.  Therefore, a value of 10 will actually make Wget wait up
           to (1 + 2 + ... + 10) = 55 seconds per file.

           Note that this option is turned on by default in the global wgetrc

           Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval pro-
           grams such as Wget by looking for statistically significant simi-
           larities in the time between requests. This option causes the time
           between requests to vary between 0 and 2 * wait seconds, where
           wait was specified using the --wait option, in order to mask
           Wget's presence from such analysis.

           A recent article in a publication devoted to development on a pop-
           ular consumer platform provided code to perform this analysis on
           the fly.  Its author suggested blocking at the class C address
           level to ensure automated retrieval programs were blocked despite
           changing DHCP-supplied addresses.

           The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-advised recom-
           mendation to block many unrelated users from a web site due to the
           actions of one.

       -Y on/off
           Turn proxy support on or off.  The proxy is on by default if the
           appropriate environment variable is defined.

           For more information about the use of proxies with Wget,

       -Q quota
           Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can be
           specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or
           megabytes (with m suffix).

           Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So
           if you specify wget -Q10k ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/ls-lR.gz, all
           of the ls-lR.gz will be downloaded.  The same goes even when
           several URLs are specified on the command-line.  However, quota is
           respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input
           file.  Thus you may safely type wget -Q2m -i sites---download will
           be aborted when the quota is exceeded.

           Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.

           Turn off caching of DNS lookups.  Normally, Wget remembers the
           addresses it looked up from DNS so it doesn't have to repeatedly
           contact the DNS server for the same (typically small) set of
           addresses it retrieves from.  This cache exists in memory only; a
           new Wget run will contact DNS again.

           However, in some cases it is not desirable to cache host names,
           even for the duration of a short-running application like Wget.
           For example, some HTTP servers are hosted on machines with dynami-
           cally allocated IP addresses that change from time to time.  Their
           DNS entries are updated along with each change.  When Wget's down-
           load from such a host gets interrupted by IP address change, Wget
           retries the download, but (due to DNS caching) it contacts the old
           address.  With the DNS cache turned off, Wget will repeat the DNS
           lookup for every connect and will thus get the correct dynamic
           address every time---at the cost of additional DNS lookups where
           they're probably not needed.

           If you don't understand the above description, you probably won't
           need this option.

           Change which characters found in remote URLs may show up in local
           file names generated from those URLs.  Characters that are
           restricted by this option are escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH,
           where HH is the hexadecimal number that corresponds to the
           restricted character.

           By default, Wget escapes the characters that are not valid as part
           of file names on your operating system, as well as control charac-
           ters that are typically unprintable.  This option is useful for
           changing these defaults, either because you are downloading to a
           non-native partition, or because you want to disable escaping of
           the control characters.

           When mode is set to ''unix'', Wget escapes the character / and the
           control characters in the ranges 0--31 and 128--159.  This is the
           default on Unix-like OS'es.

           When mode is set to ''windows'', Wget escapes the characters \, |,
           /, :, ?, ", *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges
           0--31 and 128--159.  In addition to this, Wget in Windows mode
           uses + instead of : to separate host and port in local file names,
           and uses @ instead of ? to separate the query portion of the file
           name from the rest.  Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
           www.xemacs.org:4300/search.pl?input=blah in Unix mode would be
           saved as www.xemacs.org+4300/search.pl@input=blah in Windows mode.
           This mode is the default on Windows.

           If you append ,nocontrol to the mode, as in unix,nocontrol, escap-
           ing of the control characters is also switched off.  You can use
           --restrict-file-names=nocontrol to turn off escaping of control
           characters without affecting the choice of the OS to use as file
           name restriction mode.

       Directory Options

           Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving recur-
           sively.  With this option turned on, all files will get saved to
           the current directory, without clobbering (if a name shows up more
           than once, the filenames will get extensions .n).

           The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories, even if
           one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g. wget -x
           http://fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt will save the downloaded file to

           Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default,
           invoking Wget with -r http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ will create a struc-
           ture of directories beginning with fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This option
           disables such behavior.

           Use the protocol name as a directory component of local file
           names.  For example, with this option, wget -r http://host will
           save to http/host/... rather than just to host/....

           Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default,
           invoking Wget with -r http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ will create a struc-
           ture of directories beginning with fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This option
           disables such behavior.

           Ignore number directory components.  This is useful for getting a
           fine-grained control over the directory where recursive retrieval
           will be saved.

           Take, for example, the directory at
           ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  If you retrieve it with -r, it
           will be saved locally under ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  While the
           -nH option can remove the ftp.xemacs.org/ part, you are still
           stuck with pub/xemacs.  This is where --cut-dirs comes in handy;
           it makes Wget not ''see'' number remote directory components.
           Here are several examples of how --cut-dirs option works.

                   No options        -> ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
                   -nH               -> pub/xemacs/
                   -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
                   -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .

                   --cut-dirs=1      -> ftp.xemacs.org/xemacs/

           If you just want to get rid of the directory structure, this
           option is similar to a combination of -nd and -P.  However, unlike
           -nd, --cut-dirs does not lose with subdirectories---for instance,
           with -nH --cut-dirs=1, a beta/ subdirectory will be placed to
           xemacs/beta, as one would expect.

       -P prefix
           Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is the
           directory where all other files and subdirectories will be saved
           to, i.e. the top of the retrieval tree.  The default is . (the
           current directory).

       HTTP Options

           If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is downloaded
           and the URL does not end with the regexp \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this
           option will cause the suffix .html to be appended to the local
           filename.  This is useful, for instance, when you're mirroring a
           remote site that uses .asp pages, but you want the mirrored pages
           to be viewable on your stock Apache server.  Another good use for
           this is when you're downloading CGI-generated materials.  A URL
           like http://site.com/article.cgi?25 will be saved as arti-

           Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded
           every time you re-mirror a site, because Wget can't tell that the
           local X.html file corresponds to remote URL X (since it doesn't
           yet know that the URL produces output of type text/html or appli-
           cation/xhtml+xml.  To prevent this re-downloading, you must use -k
           and -K so that the original version of the file will be saved as

           Specify the username user and password password on an HTTP server.
           According to the type of the challenge, Wget will encode them
           using either the "basic" (insecure) or the "digest" authentication

           Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.
           Either method reveals your password to anyone who bothers to run
           "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, store them in
           .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other
           users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not
           leave them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete
           them after Wget has started the download.

           For more information about security issues with Wget,

           Disable server-side cache.  In this case, Wget will send the
           remote server an appropriate directive (Pragma: no-cache) to get
           the file from the remote service, rather than returning the cached
           version.  This is especially useful for retrieving and flushing
           out-of-date documents on proxy servers.

           Caching is allowed by default.

           Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for maintain-
           ing server-side state.  The server sends the client a cookie using
           the "Set-Cookie" header, and the client responds with the same
           cookie upon further requests.  Since cookies allow the server own-
           ers to keep track of visitors and for sites to exchange this
           information, some consider them a breach of privacy.  The default
           is to use cookies; however, storing cookies is not on by default.

       --load-cookies file
           Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.  file is a
           textual file in the format originally used by Netscape's cook-
           ies.txt file.

           You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that
           require that you be logged in to access some or all of their con-
           tent.  The login process typically works by the web server issuing
           an HTTP cookie upon receiving and verifying your credentials.  The
           cookie is then resent by the browser when accessing that part of
           the site, and so proves your identity.

           Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same cookies your
           browser sends when communicating with the site.  This is achieved
           by --load-cookies---simply point Wget to the location of the cook-
           ies.txt file, and it will send the same cookies your browser would
           send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual
           cookie files in different locations:

               The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.

               Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located some-
               where under ~/.mozilla, in the directory of your profile.  The
               full path usually ends up looking somewhat like

               You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using the File
               menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.  This has been tested
               with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work with
               earlier versions.

               If you are using a different browser to create your cookies,
               --load-cookies will only work if you can locate or produce a
               cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget expects.

           If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be an alterna-
           tive.  If your browser supports a ''cookie manager'', you can use
           it to view the cookies used when accessing the site you're mirror-
           ing.  Write down the name and value of the cookie, and manually
           instruct Wget to send those cookies, bypassing the ''official''
           cookie support:

                   wget --cookies=off --header "Cookie: ="

       --save-cookies file
           Save cookies to file before exiting.  This will not save cookies
           that have expired or that have no expiry time (so-called ''session
           cookies''), but also see --keep-session-cookies.

           When specified, causes --save-cookies to also save session cook-
           ies.  Session cookies are normally not save because they are sup-
           posed to be forgotten when you exit the browser.  Saving them is
           useful on sites that require you to log in or to visit the home
           page before you can access some pages.  With this option, multiple
           Wget runs are considered a single browser session as far as the
           site is concerned.

           Since the cookie file format does not normally carry session cook-
           ies, Wget marks them with an expiry timestamp of 0.  Wget's
           --load-cookies recognizes those as session cookies, but it might
           confuse other browsers.  Also note that cookies so loaded will be
           treated as other session cookies, which means that if you want
           --save-cookies to preserve them again, you must use --keep-ses-
           sion-cookies again.

           Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more pre-
           cise) send out bogus "Content-Length" headers, which makes Wget go
           wild, as it thinks not all the document was retrieved.  You can
           spot this syndrome if Wget retries getting the same document again
           and again, each time claiming that the (otherwise normal) connec-
           tion has closed on the very same byte.

           With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length"
           header---as if it never existed.

           Define an additional-header to be passed to the HTTP servers.
           Headers must contain a : preceded by one or more non-blank charac-
           ters, and must not contain newlines.

           You may define more than one additional header by specifying
           --header more than once.

                   wget --header='Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2' \
                        --header='Accept-Language: hr'        \

           Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear
           all previous user-defined headers.

           Specify the username user and password password for authentication
           on a proxy server.  Wget will encode them using the "basic"
           authentication scheme.

           Security considerations similar to those with --http-passwd per-
           tain here as well.

           Include 'Referer: url' header in HTTP request.  Useful for
           retrieving documents with server-side processing that assume they
           are always being retrieved by interactive web browsers and only
           come out properly when Referer is set to one of the pages that
           point to them.

           Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding
           the actual contents, with an empty line as the separator.

       -U agent-string
           Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

           The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using
           a "User-Agent" header field.  This enables distinguishing the WWW
           software, usually for statistical purposes or for tracing of pro-
           tocol violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/version, ver-
           sion being the current version number of Wget.

           However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of tai-
           loring the output according to the "User-Agent"-supplied informa-
           tion.  While conceptually this is not such a bad idea, it has been
           abused by servers denying information to clients other than
           "Mozilla" or Microsoft "Internet Explorer".  This option allows
           you to change the "User-Agent" line issued by Wget.  Use of this
           option is discouraged, unless you really know what you are doing.

           Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send the speci-
           fied data in the request body.  "--post-data" sends string as
           data, whereas "--post-file" sends the contents of file.  Other
           than that, they work in exactly the same way.

           Please be aware that Wget needs to know the size of the POST data
           in advance.  Therefore the argument to "--post-file" must be a
           regular file; specifying a FIFO or something like /dev/stdin won't
           work.  It's not quite clear how to work around this limitation
           inherent in HTTP/1.0.  Although HTTP/1.1 introduces chunked trans-
           fer that doesn't require knowing the request length in advance, a
           client can't use chunked unless it knows it's talking to an
           HTTP/1.1 server.  And it can't know that until it receives a
           response, which in turn requires the request to have been com-
           pleted -- a chicken-and-egg problem.

           Note: if Wget is redirected after the POST request is completed,
           it will not send the POST data to the redirected URL.  This is
           because URLs that process POST often respond with a redirection to
           a regular page (although that's technically disallowed), which
           does not desire or accept POST.  It is not yet clear that this
           behavior is optimal; if it doesn't work out, it will be changed.

           This example shows how to log to a server using POST and then pro-
           ceed to download the desired pages, presumably only accessible to
           authorized users:

                   # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
                   wget --save-cookies cookies.txt \
                        --post-data 'user=foo&password=bar' \

                   # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
                   wget --load-cookies cookies.txt \
                        -p http://server.com/interesting/article.php

       FTP Options

           Don't remove the temporary .listing files generated by FTP
           retrievals.  Normally, these files contain the raw directory list-
           ings received from FTP servers.  Not removing them can be useful
           for debugging purposes, or when you want to be able to easily
           check on the contents of remote server directories (e.g. to verify
           that a mirror you're running is complete).

           Note that even though Wget writes to a known filename for this
           file, this is not a security hole in the scenario of a user making
           .listing a symbolic link to /etc/passwd or something and asking
           "root" to run Wget in his or her directory.  Depending on the
           options used, either Wget will refuse to write to .listing, making
           the globbing/recursion/time-stamping operation fail, or the sym-
           bolic link will be deleted and replaced with the actual .listing
           file, or the listing will be written to a .listing.number file.

           Even though this situation isn't a problem, though, "root" should
           never run Wget in a non-trusted user's directory.  A user could do
           something as simple as linking index.html to /etc/passwd and ask-
           ing "root" to run Wget with -N or -r so the file will be overwrit-

           Turn off FTP globbing.  Globbing refers to the use of shell-like
           special characters (wildcards), like *, ?, [ and ] to retrieve
           more than one file from the same directory at once, like:

                   wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/*.msg

           By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL contains a glob-
           bing character.  This option may be used to turn globbing on or
           off permanently.

           You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being expanded by
           your shell.  Globbing makes Wget look for a directory listing,
           which is system-specific.  This is why it currently works only
           with Unix FTP servers (and the ones emulating Unix "ls" output).

           Use the passive FTP retrieval scheme, in which the client initi-
           ates the data connection.  This is sometimes required for FTP to
           work behind firewalls.

           Usually, when retrieving FTP directories recursively and a sym-
           bolic link is encountered, the linked-to file is not downloaded.
           Instead, a matching symbolic link is created on the local filesys-
           tem.  The pointed-to file will not be downloaded unless this
           recursive retrieval would have encountered it separately and down-
           loaded it anyway.

           When --retr-symlinks is specified, however, symbolic links are
           traversed and the pointed-to files are retrieved.  At this time,
           this option does not cause Wget to traverse symlinks to directo-
           ries and recurse through them, but in the future it should be
           enhanced to do this.

           Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory) because it was
           specified on the command-line, rather than because it was recursed
           to, this option has no effect.  Symbolic links are always tra-
           versed in this case.

           Turn off the ''keep-alive'' feature for HTTP downloads.  Normally,
           Wget asks the server to keep the connection open so that, when you
           download more than one document from the same server, they get
           transferred over the same TCP connection.  This saves time and at
           the same time reduces the load on the server.

           This option is useful when, for some reason, persistent
           (keep-alive) connections don't work for you, for example due to a
           server bug or due to the inability of server-side scripts to cope
           with the connections.

       Recursive Retrieval Options

           Turn on recursive retrieving.

       -l depth
           Specify recursion maximum depth level depth.  The default maximum
           depth is 5.

           This option tells Wget to delete every single file it downloads,
           after having done so.  It is useful for pre-fetching popular pages
           through a proxy, e.g.:

                   wget -r -nd --delete-after http://whatever.com/~popular/page/

           The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create

           Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local machine.  It
           does not issue the DELE command to remote FTP sites, for instance.
           Also note that when --delete-after is specified, --convert-links
           is ignored, so .orig files are simply not created in the first

           After the download is complete, convert the links in the document
           to make them suitable for local viewing.  This affects not only
           the visible hyperlinks, but any part of the document that links to
           external content, such as embedded images, links to style sheets,
           hyperlinks to non-HTML content, etc.

           Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

           *   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget will be
               changed to refer to the file they point to as a relative link.

               Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
               /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in doc.html will
               be modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of trans-
               formation works reliably for arbitrary combinations of direc-

           *   The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget will
               be changed to include host name and absolute path of the loca-
               tion they point to.

               Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
               /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the link in doc.html
               will be modified to point to http://hostname/bar/img.gif.

           Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file
           was downloaded, the link will refer to its local name; if it was
           not downloaded, the link will refer to its full Internet address
           rather than presenting a broken link.  The fact that the former
           links are converted to relative links ensures that you can move
           the downloaded hierarchy to another directory.

           Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know which
           links have been downloaded.  Because of that, the work done by -k
           will be performed at the end of all the downloads.

           When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig
           suffix.  Affects the behavior of -N.

           Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option turns on
           recursion and time-stamping, sets infinite recursion depth and
           keeps FTP directory listings.  It is currently equivalent to -r -N
           -l inf --no-remove-listing.

           This option causes Wget to download all the files that are neces-
           sary to properly display a given HTML page.  This includes such
           things as inlined images, sounds, and referenced stylesheets.

           Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any requisite
           documents that may be needed to display it properly are not down-
           loaded.  Using -r together with -l can help, but since Wget does
           not ordinarily distinguish between external and inlined documents,
           one is generally left with ''leaf documents'' that are missing
           their requisites.

           For instance, say document 1.html contains an "" tag refer-
           encing 1.gif and an "" tag pointing to external document
           2.html.  Say that 2.html is similar but that its image is 2.gif
           and it links to 3.html.  Say this continues up to some arbitrarily
           high number.

           If one executes the command:

                   wget -r -l 2 http:///1.html then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded. As you can see, 3.html is without its requisite 3.gif because Wget is simply counting the number of hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in order to determine where to stop the recursion. However, with this command: wget -r -l 2 -p http:///1.html all the above files and 3.html's requisite 3.gif will be down- loaded. Similarly, wget -r -l 1 -p http:///1.html will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded. One might think that: wget -r -l 0 -p http:///1.html would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is not the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l inf---that is, infinite recursion. To download a single HTML page (or a handful of them, all specified on the command-line or in a -i URL input file) and its (or their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l: wget -p http:///1.html Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified, but only that single page and its requisites will be downloaded. Links from that page to external documents will not be followed. Actu- ally, to download a single page and all its requisites (even if they exist on separate websites), and make sure the lot displays properly locally, this author likes to use a few options in addi- tion to -p: wget -E -H -k -K -p http:/// To finish off this topic, it's worth knowing that Wget's idea of an external document link is any URL specified in an "" tag, an
" tag, or a "
" tag other than "

           Turn on strict parsing of HTML comments.  The default is to termi-
           nate comments at the first occurrence of -->.

           According to specifications, HTML comments are expressed as SGML
           declarations.  Declaration is special markup that begins with , such as 
, that may contain comments between a pair of -- delimiters. HTML comments are ''empty decla- rations'', SGML declarations without any non-comment text. There- fore, is a valid comment, and so is , but is not. On the other hand, most HTML writers don't perceive comments as anything other than text delimited with , which is not quite the same. For example, something like works as a valid comment as long as the number of dashes is a multiple of four (!). If not, the comment technically lasts until the next --, which may be at the other end of the document. Because of this, many popular browsers completely ignore the specification and implement what users have come to expect: comments delimited with . Until version 1.9, Wget interpreted comments strictly, which resulted in missing links in many web pages that displayed fine in browsers, but had the misfortune of containing non-compliant com- ments. Beginning with version 1.9, Wget has joined the ranks of clients that implements ''naive'' comments, terminating each com- ment at the first occurrence of -->. If, for whatever reason, you want strict comment parsing, use this option to turn it on. Recursive Accept/Reject Options -A acclist --accept acclist -R rejlist --reject rejlist Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns to accept or reject. -D domain-list --domains=domain-list Set domains to be followed. domain-list is a comma-separated list of domains. Note that it does not turn on -H. --exclude-domains domain-list Specify the domains that are not to be followed.. --follow-ftp Follow FTP links from HTML documents. Without this option, Wget will ignore all the FTP links. --follow-tags=list Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it considers when looking for linked documents during a recursive retrieval. If a user wants only a subset of those tags to be con- sidered, however, he or she should be specify such tags in a comma-separated list with this option. --ignore-tags=list This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option. To skip certain HTML tags when recursively looking for documents to download, specify them in a comma-separated list. In the past, this option was the best bet for downloading a single page and its requisites, using a command-line like: wget --ignore-tags=a,area -H -k -K -r http:/// However, the author of this option came across a page with tags like " " and came to the realization that specifying tags to ignore was not enough. One can't just tell Wget to ignore " ", because then stylesheets will not be downloaded. Now the best bet for downloading a single page and its requisites is the dedicated --page-requisites option. -H --span-hosts Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving. -L --relative Follow relative links only. Useful for retrieving a specific home page without any distractions, not even those from the same hosts. -I list --include-directories=list Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow when downloading. Elements of list may contain wildcards. -X list --exclude-directories=list Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude from download. Elements of list may contain wildcards. -np --no-parent Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving recur- sively. This is a useful option, since it guarantees that only the files below a certain hierarchy will be downloaded. FILES /usr/local/etc/wgetrc Default location of the global startup file. .wgetrc User startup file. BUGS You are welcome to send bug reports about GNU Wget to . Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few simple guidelines. 1. Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really is a bug. If Wget crashes, it's a bug. If Wget does not behave as docu- mented, it's a bug. If things work strange, but you are not sure about the way they are supposed to work, it might well be a bug. 2. Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible. E.g. if Wget crashes while downloading wget -rl0 -kKE -t5 -Y0 http://yoyodyne.com -o /tmp/log, you should try to see if the crash is repeatable, and if will occur with a simpler set of options. You might even try to start the download at the page where the crash occurred to see if that page somehow triggered the crash. Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of your .wgetrc file, just dumping it into the debug message is prob- ably a bad idea. Instead, you should first try to see if the bug repeats with .wgetrc moved out of the way. Only if it turns out that .wgetrc settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant parts of the file. 3. Please start Wget with -d option and send the log (or the relevant parts of it). If Wget was compiled without debug support, recom- pile it. It is much easier to trace bugs with debug support on. 4. If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. "gdb 'which wget' core" and type "where" to get the backtrace. SEE ALSO GNU Info entry for wget. AUTHOR Originally written by Hrvoje Niksic . COPYRIGHT Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being ''GNU General Public License'' and ''GNU Free Documentation License'', with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back- Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section enti- tled ''GNU Free Documentation License''. GNU Wget 1.9+cvs-dev 2004-08-27 WGET(1)